This course will introduce industrial instrumentation as used for troubleshooting, process measurements and process control. Specifically, the course will discuss measurement terminology and describe the instrumentation used for electronic testing
Fundamentals of instrumentation- Fundamentals of instrumentation. Accuracy and precision- Accuracy and precision. Error and its types - Error - Systematic error - Operational errors (Human Error). Hysteresis, resolution, scale readability and threshold - Linearity - Hysteresis. Repeatability, reliability and maintainability- Repeatability, reliability and maintainability. Range, Span and dynamic accuracy - Range and Span - Dynamic accuracy. Calibration - Calibration. Sensor and transducer - Sensor and transducer. Classification of transducer - Classification of transducer - Classification according to transduction principle. Basic requirement of transducer - Requirements of a transducer.
Linear potentiometers - Displacement - Linear potentiometer - Advantages, disadvantages and specifications. Linear variable differential transformers - Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) - Operation of LVDT - Advantages, disadvantages - Applications. Linear variable reluctance transducers - Linear variable reluctance transducers(LVRT) - Operation (LVRT). Inductive proximity sensors for position measurement - Principle and construction of inductive proximity sensors - Advantages, disadvantages and applications. Capacitive proximity sensors for position measurement - Principle and construction - Operation of capacitive proximity sensor - Advantages, disadvantages and applications. Resistance strain gauge - Principle and working of strain gauge - Bridge strain gauge circuits - Types of strain gauge - Expression for gauge factor - Advantages, disadvantages and applications. Rotary variable differential transformer - Principle and construction of RVDT - Operation of RVDT - Advantages and applications. Importance of vibration monitoring - Vibration monitoring - Machine vibration - Reasons for vibration measurement. Moving coil type velocity transducer - Principle and construction of moving coil type velocity transducer - Advantages. Moving iron type velocity transducer - Principle and construction of moving iron type velocity transducer - Advantages and disadvantages. AC tacho generators - AC tachogenerators - Features and applications - Advantages and disadvantages. Dc tacho generators - Dc tacho generators - Advantages and disadvantages. Photo electric tachometer - Photo electric tachometer - Advantages and disadvantages.Toothed rotor variable reluctance tachometer - Principle and construction of toothed rotor variable reluctance tachometer.
Classification of temperature transducers - Temperature - Temperature scales - Classification of temperature transducers. Bimetal strip - Bimetal strip - Advantages and applications. Liquid filled thermometer - Liquid filled thermometer - Liquid in glass thermometer - Liquid in steel thermometer. Resistance temperature detector - Resistance temperature detector. Thermistor - Thermistor. Thermocouple - Thermocouple. Thermocouple laws - Thermocouple laws. Infrared pyrometer – Infrared pyrometer - Advantages and disadvantages. Optical pyrometer - Optical pyrometer. Solid State Sensors - Solid State Sensors.
Elastic element for pressure measurements - Introduction of elastic element for pressure measurements - Diaphragm. Capsule - Capsule. Bellows - Introduction to bellows - Operation of bellows. Bourdon tube - Introduction to bourdon tube - Principle of operation of bourdon tube - Types of bourdon tube. Potentiometer device - Potentiometer transducer - Advantage and disadvantage of potentiometer pressure transducer - Strain gauge transducer - Introduction to strain gauge - Types of strain gauge transducer - Advantage and disadvantage. Variable reluctance sensor - Description variable reluctance sensor - Advantages and disadvantages of variable reluctance sensor. Linear variable differential transformer - Linear variable differential transformer - Advantages and disadvantages. Variable capacitance sensor - Capacitive transducer - Advantages and disadvantages. Thin film pressure transducer - Description of thin film pressure transducer - Advantages and disadvantages. Force-balance transducer - Introduction of force-balance transducer - Advantages and disadvantages.Piezoelectric pressure transducer - Description of piezoelectric pressure transducer - Advantages and disadvantages. Pressure multiplexer - Need for pressure multiplexer. Dead weight tester - Principle of pressure calibration using dead weight tester.
Introduction to flow measurement - Introduction to flow measurement - Flow measurement methods - Head type flow meter.Orifice plate - Introduction to orifice plate. Venturi tube - Venturi flow meter - Applications. Pitot tube - Introduction to the pitot tube - Applications. Rotameter - Rotameter - Applications. Turbine Flow Meter - Turbine Flow Meter. Cup type anemometer - Cup type anemometer. Hot wire/Hot film type anemometer - Hot-wire anemometer - Hot-film anemometer. Electro magnetic flow meter - Introduction to electromagnetic flow meter - Electromagnetic flow meter. Ultrasonic flow meter - Introduction to ultrasonic flow meter - Advantages of ultrasonic flow meter - Transit time ultrasonic flow meter-principle - Advantages and disadvantages of transit time ultrasonic flow meter. Laser anemometer - Laser anemometer.
Liquid level sight glass - Level measurement - Liquid level sight glass - Advantages and disadvantages.Float actuated level indicators - Float actuated level indicator - Advantages and disadvantages. Resistive type level indicator - Resistive type level indicator. Capacitance type level indicators - Capacitance type level indicators - Variable area method. Nucleonic level gauge - Radiometric level detection and measurement - Nucleonic level gauge - Advantages, disadvantages and applications. Ultrasonic level gauge - Ultrasonic level gauge - Advantages, disadvantages and applications. Level switches - Level switches. Float operated spring loaded level switch - Float operated spring loaded level switch - Advantages and disadvantages.
Density and viscosity measurement - Viscosity - Terms related to viscosity - Necessity of viscosity - Viscometer. Capillary viscometer - Capillary tube viscometer - Ostwald viscometer. Falling ball viscometer - Falling ball viscometer. Rotating viscometer - Rotating viscometer. Introduction to density - Introduction to density - Density Measurement - Densitometers. Displacement type densitometer - Displacement type densitometer. Fluid dynamic type densitometer - Fluid dynamic type densitometer. Capacitance type densitometer - Capacitance type densitometer.
Load cell - Hydraulic load cells - Pneumatic load cells - Strain gauge load cell - Advantages and applications. Relative humidity and moisture - Humidity - Moisture. Condensation type hygrometer - Condensation type hygrometer. Electrolytic hygrometer - Electrolytic hygrometer - Advantages and disadvantages.