# Linear ICs and Applications

#### Features Includes:

• 85 - 3D/2D Animation
• 462 Pages of Content
• 90 Lecture Hours
• 3 Solved Problems
• 224 Quiz
• Suitable for All Technical University Syllabus

#### Course Description

This course is designed to give you broad and application skills about IC manufacturing. It provides the comprehensive coverage of operational amplifiers, 555 timer, PLL and Converters.

#### OBJECTIVES:

• Know about the IC manufacturing process
• Understand signal analysis using op-amp based circuits
• Study about the applications of op-amps
• Know about IC 555 timer and PLL
• Gain knowledge about instrumentation amplifier, Converters
###### UNIT - I IC MANUFACTURING

Introduction to ICs- Introduction to integrated circuits - Evolution of integrated circuits - Advantages and disadvantages of ICs.ICs based on manufacturing process- Classification of ICs. Manufacturing process of monolithic IC - Manufacturing process of monolithic IC. Fabrication of components - Fabrication of resistors - Fabrication of capacitor - Fabrication of diode - Fabrication of transistor. Different IC packages - Types of IC packages. Levels of integration - Levels of integration. Surface mount technology - Surface Mount Technology (SMT) - Surface Mount Devices (SMDs) - Mounting of SMCs - Soldering. Advantages of SMT over pin through hole - Advantages of SMT over pin through hole mounting.

###### UNIT - II OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

Differential Amplifier- Introduction to differential amplifier – Circuit of differential amplifier - Operation of differential amplifier - Advantages and applications of differential amplifier.Operational amplifier- Introduction to operational amplifier - Circuit symbol of Op-Amp - Requirements of Operational Amplifier - Specifications of ideal Op-Amp. Characteristics of Op-Amp - Voltage Gain (AV) - Input and Output Impedance (Zi and Zo) - Input offset voltage and Input offset current - Offset voltage swing and Bandwidth - Input bias current and Input capacitance - Large signal voltage gain and Slew Rate - Gain bandwidth product and Supply current - Ideal and Practical values for op-amp. CMRR and Need for High CMRR - Definition for CMRR - Need for High CMRR - Limitations of discrete Op-Amp. Integrated circuit (IC) Op-Amp– Block diagram of IC operational amplifier. Pin Diagram of IC 741 packages - Pin diagram of IC 741 packages. Power supply requirements of Op-Amp – Power supply requirements - Configuration of op-amp with power supply. Non-inverting amplifier - Circuit diagram of non-inverting amplifier - Input and output resistance of non-inverting amplifier.Inverting amplifier and voltage follower - Inverting amplifier - Circuit diagram of inverting amplifier - Input and output resistance of inverting amplifier - Circuit diagram and operation of voltage follower - Advantages and applications of voltage follower. IC voltage regulators -Introduction to IC voltage regulator - Block schematic of Regulated Power Supply (RPS) - Factors affecting the load voltage - Power supply performance parameters.Types of voltage regulators- Types of voltage regulators - Advantages of IC voltage regulators.Inverting comparator- Protection circuit in regulators - Constant current limiting circuit - Foldback current limiting circuit. LM78XX, 79XX Fixed voltage regulators - Three Terminal Fixed Voltage Regulators - Block Diagram of Basic Three Terminal IC Regulator - Data Sheet Specifications of IC Linear Regulators - IC Series of Three Terminal Fixed Voltage Regulators - Typical Connection of IC 7805 Regulator - Positive 5 V Power Supply using IC 7805 - Adjustable Regulator using 78XX Series - Applications of IC 78XX and 79XX - Datasheet Specifications of IC 7805 - Boosting Regulator Output Current. Three terminal adjustable regulator : LM 317 - Three terminal adjustable regulator : LM 317 - Connection diagram of LM 317 regulator - Solved problems based on voltage regulator. General Purpose Linear IC 723 Regulator - General Purpose Linear IC 723 Regulator - Important Features of IC 723 - Internal Structure of IC 723 - Specifications of IC Regulator 723 - Applications of IC 723.

###### UNIT - III OP-AMP APPLICATIONS

Open loop operation of op-amp-Feedback - Effects of negative feedback of an amplifier. Summing and Difference amplifier- Summing amplifier - Difference amplifier. Integrator and Differentiator - Integrator - Input and output waveforms of integrator – Differentiator - Input and output waveforms of differentiator.Isolation Amplifiers-Need of isolation amplifier - Operation of isolation amplifier. Comparator - Introduction to comparator - Non inverting comparator - Inverting comparator. Square wave generator using op-amp - Square wave generator - Operation of square wave generator.Triangular wave generator using op-amp - Operation of triangular wave generator - Saw tooth wave generator using op-amp - Saw tooth wave generator. Wien bridge oscillator using op-amp - Wien bridge oscillator - Wien bridge oscillator design. Astable multivibrator - Introduction of Astable multivibrator - Collector coupled Astable multivibrator. Bistable multivibrator - Introduction of bistable multivibrator - Collector coupled bistable multivibrator. Monostable multivibrator - Introduction of monostable multivibrator - Collector coupled monostable multivibrator. Applications of multivibrators - Applications of multivibrators.

###### UNIT - IV TIMERS AND PLL

IC 555 timer - Introduction of IC 555 timer - Functional block diagram of IC 555 Timer. Astable multivibrator using IC 555 - Astable multivibrator using IC 555. Monostable multivibrator using IC555 - Monostable multivibrator using IC555. Phase Locked Loop (PLL) - Introduction of Phase Locked Loop - Block diagram of PLL - LM 565 PLL. Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) - Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). Lock range and capture range of PLL - Different stages in PLL operation - Lock range and capture range of PLL. Applications of PLL - Applications of PLL - Phase sensitive detection - FM demodulation and AM detection. Frequency multiplier using PLL - Introduction of Frequency multiplier - Working of frequency multiplier. FM demodulator using PLL - Introduction of FM demodulator - FM demodulator using LM565C. Analog Multiplier – Analog voltage multiplier circuit – Analog voltage divider circuit.

###### UNIT - V INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS, A/D & D/A CONVERTERS

Instrumentation amplifier–Requirements of instrumentation amplifier - Block Diagram of instrumentation amplifier - Circuit Diagram of instrumentation amplifier. I-V and V-I converter - Current to voltage converter - Voltage to current converter - Application of I-V and V-I converter. A/D and D/A converters - Need for A/D converters - Definition of A/D and D/A converters. Principle and specifications of DACs - Basic principle of DAC - Specifications of D/A converter. Digital to analog converters - R-2R ladder DAC - Binary Weighted resistor DAC - Disadvantages of weighted resistor DAC.Analog to digital converters- A-D converters - Flash A/D converter - Counter type A/D converter - Servo tracking A/D converter - Successive approximation A/D converter - Dual Slope A/D converter.