The course main aim is to impart in-depth knowledge of the subject and highlight the role of chemistry in the field of engineering. Students will gain knowledge of the concepts of chemistry in respect of electrochemical cells, fuel cells, mechanism of corrosion and factors to influence, polymers with their applications, engineering materials and water chemistry.
Introduction to water - Introduction to water – types of water - Differences between Hard Water and Soft Water – impurities in water – sources of impurities in water. Expression of hardness of water – Expression of hardness water – Hardness of water – Units of hardness - Calculation of CaCO3 equivalent – Disadvantages of hard water – WHO limits. Estimation of hardness of water by EDTA method - Estimation of hardness of water by EDTA method – Experimental procedure – Problems based on hardness of water. Acidity and alkalinity of water - Determination of acidity in water – Alkalinity of water. Boiler troubles - Boiler feed water – Boiler troubles – scale and sludge formation in boilers – scale formation reaction – Disadvantages of scale formation – prevention of scacle formation – Difference between sludges and scale. Priming and Foaming – Priming and Foaming – Caustic embrittlement – Boiler corrosion. Treatment of boiler feed water - Treatment of boiler feed water – Internal Conditioning and external conditioning. External treatment - External conditioning – Hot lime soda process – Advantages and disadvantages – Comparison between cold and hot lime soda process – Numerical problems – Requirement of lime and soda. Zeolite process – Regeneration of zeolite process - Ion-Exchange resin (or) deionization (or) demineralization process. Potable water – Potable water – Water for drinking purpose – steps involved in treatment of potable water – Removal of suspended impurities – Disinfection – Disinfection by ozone – Chlorination _ Addition of bleaching powder – Break – point chlorination. Defluoridation – Defluoridation - Nalgonda technique (Precipitation technique) - Mechanism of defluoridation by Nalgonda technique for large communities - Fill and draw technique for small communities - Nalgonda technique for domestic defluoridation - Advantages and disadvantages of Nalgonda technique - Determination of iron F- ion by ion - selective electrode method - Sample preparation - Measurement and analysis of F- . Osmosis and reverse osmosis - Osmosis and reverse osmosis – Desalination – Desalination of Brackish water – Electrodialysis – Process of Electrodialysis. DO- BOD and COD - Dissolved oxygen – Determination of organic matter – BOD – BOD determination – Chemical oxygen demand – Numerical problems. Sewage water – Sewage water – Sewage water treatment – Preliminary treatment – Primary treatment – Secondary treatment – Tertiary treatment – Trickling filters –Up flow anaerobic sludge Blanket reactor.
Polymers - Introduction to polymers - Types of polymerisation reactions- Addition or chain polymerisation- Condensation or Step growth polymerisation- Copolymerisation- Stereo specific polymers. Methods of polymerisation - Techniques of polymerization - Bulk and solution polymerization - Suspension and emulsion polymerisation. Mechanism of Polymerisation - Mechanism of free radical polymerization - Mechanism of ionic polymerisation- Mechanism of Ziegler - Natta polymerisation (or) Coordination polymerisation- Thermodynamics of polymerization process. Physical and Mechanical properties of polymers - Physical properties of polymers- Physical state and Elasticity of polymers- Chemical resistance- Crystallinity of polymers- Mechanical properties of polymers- Molecular weight of polymers- The number – average molecular weight (Mn)- The weight – average molecular weight (Mw)- Effect of molecular weight on the properties of polymers. Plastics – Plastics- Plastics and its classification- Comparison of Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics- Advantages and disadvantages of plastics - Moulding constituents of plastics - Moulding techniques. Preparation and uses of Thermoplastics and Thermosets - Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) - Preparation - properties and uses of Nylon 6,6 - Bakelite - Preparation - properties and uses of Dacron. Cellulose derivatives - Cellulose derivatives - Vinyl resins - Polyvinyl acetate and polystyrene - Teflon (Or) Polytetrafluoroethylene - Plexi glass - Polycarbonate. Bullet proof plastics - Bullet proof plastics - Properties of plastics - Engineering applications of plastics. Elastomers or rubber - Elastomers - Rubber and its types - Sources and structure of rubber - Processing of natural rubber from latex. Vulcanization - Compounding of rubber - Vulcanization and its process - Properties of vulcanized rubber - Comparison between raw rubber and vulcanized rubber. Synthetic rubbers - Synthetic rubbers - Buna-S rubber - Properties and uses of Buna-S rubber - Buna-N rubber - Polyurethane - Thikols (Polysulfide rubbers) - Silicone rubber - Epoxy resin - Polybutadiene (Butyl rubber) - ABS structure and properties - Neoprene. Blends and composites - Blends - General characteristics of composites - Fibre -Reinforced polymer composites or polymer composites (FRP) - Types of composites - Continuous and discontinuous fiber composites - Structural composites - Applications of composite materials. Conducting polymers - Conducting polymers - Intrinsically Conducting Polymers - Extrinsically Conducting Polymers - Mechanism of conduction - Conduction mechanism of polyaniline - Polypyrrole - Polyacetylene - OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes). Inorganic polymers - Introduction to inorganic polymers - Silicones - Polyphosphazines. Bio-degradable polymers - Bio-degradable polymers - Polyvinyl acetate - Polylactic acids (PLA).
Electrochemistry - Electrochemistry, Types of conductors, Types of electrolytes, Electrode potential - Electrode potential, The origin of electrode potential, Standard electrode potential, Oxidation and Reduction, Electrochemical series, Application of electrochemical series, Electrodes - Electrodes, Standard hydrogen electrode, Calomel electrode, Glass electrode, Nernst equation and numerical problems - Derivation of Nernst equation for electrode potential, Problem based on nernst equation, Problem based on nernst equation, Problem based on nernst equation, Problem based on nernst equation, Daniel cell (or) Galvanic cell - Galvanic cell, Salt bridge, Representation of Galvanic cell or Cell notation, Anode half cell and Cathode half cell, Emf of cell and its measurement, Concentration cell - Concentration cell, Electrode concentration cells without transference, Electrolyte concentration cells without transference, Concentration cell with transference, Electrolyte concentration cell - Electrolyte concentration cells, Problems based on concentration cell, Problems based on concentration cell, Batteries - Batteries, Primary cells (dry cells), Alkaline battery, Lithium battery, Secondary cells - Secondary cells, Lead acid cell, Nickel cadmium cell, Lithium cell, Applications of batteries, Fuel cells - Fuel cells, Hydrogen - oxygen fuel cell, Methanol - oxygen fuel cell.
Introduction to Corrosion - Introduction to corrosion - Causes of corrosion - Effects of corrosion. Types of corrosion - Types of corrosion - Chemical corrosion - Oxidation corrosion - Corrosion by hydrogen - Liquid metal corrosion - Electrochemical corrosion (or) wet corrosion - Hydrogen evolution types corrosion - Adsorption of oxygen or hydroxide ion type corrosion - Difference between chemical and electrochemical corrosion. Galvanic corrosion - Galvanic cell (Composition cell) - Galvanic series - Concentration cell - Pitting corrosion - Differential aeration corrosion - Soil and microbial corrosions - Waterline corrosion - Stress cell - Stress-corrosion cracking. Factors influencing the rate of corrosion - Factors affecting the rate of corrosion - Nature of the metal - Nature of the environment. Corrosion control - Corrosion control - Cathodic production - Sacrificial anodic method - Examples for sacrificial anodic protection method - Immersed current cathodic protection method (or) impressed voltage method - Comparison of sacrificial anodic with impressed current cathodic protection method. Protective coatings - Protective coatings - Paint - Constituents of paint - Varnishes - Types of varnishes - Lacquers - Enamels. Methods of application on metals - Surface coating - Metallic coating - Cementation - Cladding - Surface preparation for metallic coating - Electroplating - Anodizing - Differences between electroplating and anodizing - Characteristics of various metal plating. Metal finishing - Introduction to metal finishing - Technological importance of metal finishing - Methods of metal finishing - Electrochemical deposition or plating process - Plating process - Ingredients of plating bath - Plating metals. Electroplating - Electroplating - Polarization - Concentration polarization - Decomposition potential - Overvoltage - Principle of electro plating - Mechanism of electroplating - Factors that influence the nature of electrodeposits - Preparation of electrolyte bath - Organic additives - Electroplating of nickel - Electroplating of chromium. Electroless plating - Electroless plating - Comparison of electroplating and electroless plating - Electroless copper plating - Preparation of printed circuit board (PCB) by electroless plating - Process of electroless plating a PCB circuitry with holes.
Fuel - Fuels - Classification of fuels - Energy consumption of fuel - Characteristics of good fuel - Relative merits of solid liquid and gaseous fuels - Advantages and disadvantages of solid - liquid and gaseous fuels. Calorific valuel - Calorific value - Gross and net calorific value - Bomb calorimeter - Calculation of bomb calorimeter - Theoretical calculations of calorific values by Dulong’s formula. Numerical problems on combustion - Problem based on calorific value - Problem based on calorific value - Problem based on calorific value - Problem based on calorific value. Solid fuels - Introduction to solid fuels - Classification of coal and its characteristics - Significance of various constituents - Significance of proximate analysis - Proximate analysis of coal - Significance of ultimate analysis - Ultimate analysis of coal. Coke - Coke - Carbonization - Characteristic of good metallurgical coke - Otto Hoffman's by -product oven method - Recovery of by-products. Liquid fuels - Liquid fuels - Introduction to crude petroleum - Origin of petroleum - Refining of petroleum - Process of crude oil - distillation - Properties of petroleum products. Synthetic petrol - Synthetic petrol - Bergius process - Fisher Tropsch process - Reforming - Commercial catalytic reforming process. Cracking - Cracking - Necessity of cracking - Types of cracking - Fixed bed catalytic cracking - Moving - bed catalytic cracking. Knocking - Knocking - Octane number - Prevention of knocking - Diesel - Cetane number. Gaseous fuels - Gaseous fuels - Types of gaseous fuels - Natural gas - Uses of natural gas - Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) - Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) - Biogas. Producer gas - Producer gas - Uses of producer gas - Principal reactions in an air -blown producer - Reaction zone in a gas producer - Impurities in the raw gas. Water gas - Water gas - Water gas generator - Generation of blue gas - Uses of water gas. Coal gas - Coal gas - Coal gas composition - Uses of coal gas - Bio gas. Bio gas - Bio gas - Composition - Raw materials - Manufacture of Dung (or Gobar) Gas. Power alcohol - Power alcohol - Combustion characteristics of power alcohols - Engine response to alcohol as a fuel - Advantages and disadvantages of power alcohol - Biodiesel. Combustion - Combustion - Combustion calculations - Problem related to combustion - Problem related to combustion - Problem related to combustion. Orsat analysis - Orsat analysis - Problem based on Orsat analysis - Problem based on Orsat analysis - Problem based on Orsat analysis - Problem based on Orsat analysis - Problem based on Orsat analysis - Problem based on Orsat analysis - Problem based on Orsat analysis - Problem based on Orsat analysis. Explosives - Explosives - Classification of explosives - Low and High explosives - Rocket Propellants - Characteristics of good propellant. Classification of propellants - Classification of propellants - Liquid propellant - Monopropellant - Bipropellant.
Engineering material - Engineering material – Abrasive - Classification of abrasives - Applications of abrasives - Classification and properties of refractories - Classification and properties of refractories - Definition and classification of refractories - Properties of refractories - Characteristics of a good refractory - Causes for failures of refractory - Applications of refractory. Ceramics - Ceramics - Classification of ceramics - Properties of ceramics - Applications of ceramics – Cement - Portland cement - Uses and properties of cements - Composition of Portland cement. Production of Portland cement - Production of Portland cement - Types of portaland cement - Portaland cement production - production cement by wet and dry process - Setting and hardening of cement.Deterioration of cement concrete - Effect of carbon dioxide on cement concrete - Effect of sulphur dioxide on cement concrete - Effect of chlorides on cement concrete - Special cement - Water proof cement - White cement - High alumina cement and acid resistant cement – Lubricant - Introduction to lubricants - Functions of a lubricant - Classification of lubricants - Greases or semi-solid lubricants - Solid lubricant.Theory and mechanism of lubricants - Theory and mechanism of lubricants - Theories of friction - Mechanism of lubrication - Fluid or hydrodynamic lubrication - Thin film or boundary lubrication - Extreme pressure lubrication - Properties of lubricants - Properties of lubricants - Viscosity index - Flash point and fire point - Cloud point and pour point - Aniline point - Introduction to materials - Introduction to materials - Types of materials - Electrical properties of materials - Energy bands in solids - Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators - Types of semiconductors - Compound and defects - Organic semiconductors. Semiconducting materials - Commercially available Electrical conduct materials - Commonly used materials for Semiconductors - Compound semiconductors - Applications of semiconductors - Purification of solids by Zone refining. Introduction To Magnet Materials - Introduction To Magnet Materials - Types of magnets - Magnetic field - Magnetic circuits - Series magnetic circuits - Parallel magnetic circuits - Classification of magnetic materials - Paramagnetic materials - Diamagnetic materials. Soft/hard magnetic materials - Soft magnetic materials - Hard magnetic materials - Difference between hard and soft magnets. Ferrites - Structure of ferrites - Preparation of ferrites - Applications of ferrites. Insulators – Insulators - Thermal insulators - Types of thermal insulators - Electrical insulators. Green house concept - Greenhouse effect on global warming - Impacts of enhanced greenhouse effect - Introduction to green chemistry - Introduction to green chemistry - Green chemistry and environment - Emergency of green chemistry. Concepts of green chemistry - Concepts of green chemistry - Prevention and atom economy - Use of less hazardous chemicals and safer designing of products - Innocuous solvents and auxiliaries - Design for energy efficiency and use of renewable feed stocks - Reduce derivatives and catalysis - Design of degradation and real - time analysis for pollution prevention - Inherently safer chemistry for accident prevention. Use of alternative feed stock - Use of alternative feed stock - Biodiesel production - Biodiesel production methods - Benzene-free synthesis of adipic acid - Manufacturing of carpet tiles with polyolefin as feedstock - Alternative solvents - Methods of Synthesis. Design of safer chemicals - Design of safer chemicals - Hydrogen peroxide - Design of alternative reaction methodology - Supramolecular chemistry and Asymmetric synthesis - Supercritical water oxidation or SCWO - On water reaction - Dry media reaction/reactions in solid phase - Minimizing energy consumptions - Applications of green chemistry - Limitations of green chemistry.