This course comprises the properties and applications of conducting material, Semi conducting material, Insulating material, Di-electric Material, Magnetic material, special purpose material and batteries.
Introduction to conducting materials, hardening and annealing- Electrical engineering materials - Heat treatment of metals - Purpose of annealing - Effects of annealing on copper - Hardening. Classification of materials - Low resistivity materials - High resistivity material - Applications of high resistivity materials - Comparison of different conducting materials - Comparison of copper and aluminium. Conducting material - Properties - Application. Colour coding of resistor – Colour code of four band and five band resistors.
Semiconducting materials - Types of materials - Electrical properties of materials. Classification of Semiconductors - Types of Semiconductors, Comparison of Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors. Formation of N-type semiconductor- N-type semiconductor, Formation and conduction in n- type semiconductor. Formation of P-type semiconductor - P - type semiconductor - Formation and conduction in p - type semiconductor - Comparison between P and N type semiconductors.
Insulating materials - Types of insulating materials - Properties of insulating materials - Electrical properties. Classifications of materials - Valence electron - Classification of materials - Comparison Between Conductor, Insulator and Semi-Conductor. Classification of insulating materials - Thermal classification of insulators. Classification of insulating materials-fibrous materials- Classification of Insulating materials according to physical state - Paper - Card board or press board - Insulating textiles – Asbestos. Fibrous insulating materials ceramics - Ceramic materials– Porcelain - Properties of important ceramics. Insulating materials - Mica - Glass insulating material. Insulating resins (plastics) - Natural resins - Synthetic resins. Thermoplastic resins - Types of thermoplastics - Polyethylene or Polythene - PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC) - Thermosetting resin. Insulating gases - Gaseous insulating materials - Hydrogen.
Dielectric strength - Importance of dielectric constant. Polarization - Non polar materials - Polar material. Dielectric loss and applications of dielectrics - Dielectric loss - Factors affecting dielectric loss - Colour coding of capacitor.
B-H curve and hysteresis loop - B-H Curve or magnetization curve - B-H Curve and permeability. Hysteresis loop - Steps in obtaining hysteresis loop - Theory behind hysteresis effect - Hysteresis loss per unit volume - Practical use of hysteresis loop. Classification of magnetic materials - Paramagnetic materials - Diamagnetic materials– Ferromagnetic material - Curie point, magnetostriction - Soft magnetic materials - Hard magnetic materials.
Special purpose materials - Thermocouple materials – Bimetals or thermostats.Soldering materials - Hard solder. Fuse materials - Fuse and fuse materials. Galvanizing–Impregnation - Technique of impregnation of paper - Impregnation of machines windings- Enamels. Importance of nanomaterial - Advances in Nanomaterial - Classification of Nanomaterials.
Primary and Secondary Cells - Cell terminology - Classification of Cells - Comparison between primary and secondary cell. Chemical reaction of secondary cell - Chemical reactions of lead acid battery -Chemical reactions of lead acid cell during charging - Chemical reaction of nickel iron cell - Charging and discharging reaction nickel cadmium cell. Lead Acid battery - Construction of lead acid battery - Containers of a lead acid cell - Plates of a lead acid cell – Separators - Vent plugs or filler caps. Effect of temperature on specific gravity of electrolyte- Variation in specific gravity during charging and discharging - Effect of specific gravity on e.m.f.Nickel iron Cell - Construction of nickel iron cells. Application of storage cells -Nickel-cadmium battery - Charging and discharging reaction - Applications of lead-acid battery - Applications of a nickel iron battery - Advantages of nickel cadmium cell over other batteries - Applications of a nickel cadmium cell. Charging methods of batteries - Precautionary measures to be taken during charging and discharging of batteries - Trickle charging. Indications of a fully charged battery - Capacity of a battery - Factors affecting capacity of a Battery. Efficiency of a battery - Watt-hour efficiency (or) energy efficiency – Problems. Construction of maintenance free battery - Introduction to maintenance free battery - Action of maintenance free batteries - Comparison between maintenance free battery and lead acid battery - Applications of maintenance free batteries. Applications of battery - Miniature button Cell - Mercury Cell - Construction of silver oxide cell - Specifications and Ratings of miniature button cells - Important applications of miniature button cells.