To upskill and apply the thermodynamic concepts into various thermal applications and understand about automobile transmissions.
Introduction to steam -Introduction - Formation of steam - Conditions of steam. Properties of steam - Enthalpy - Specific volume - Entropy - External work of evaporation - Steam tables. Property diagrams - p-T diagram of a pure substance - T-v diagram of a pure substance - T-s diagram of a pure substance - h-s diagram of a pure substance - p-V-T surface - Mollier diagram - Important formulae. Problems on steam.
Boilers- Fire tube boiler. Water tube boiler - Comparison between 'fire-tube' and 'water tube' boilers. Simple vertical boilers - Lancashire boiler - Babcock and Wilcox boiler. Boiler Mountings - Pressure gauge - Fusible plug. Safety valves - Dead weight and lever safety valve - Spring loaded and high steam low water safety valve. Steam stop valve and feed pump - Feed check valve - Blow off cock. Boiler Accessories - Economiser. Super heater and air-preheater. High pressure boilers - Benson boiler. Steam trap and Separator - Principles of stokers - Under feed stokers - Draught system - Draught - Natural draught (chimney draught) - Steam jet draught - Advantages and disadvantages of steam jet draught - Artificial draught - Types of artificial draught. Performance of boilers - Equivalent evaporation - Boiler thermal efficiency - Factors influencing boiler efficiency - Boiler HP - Example. Heat balance - Example.
Expansion of steam - Introduction - Constant volume (lso-choric) process - Problem. Constant pressure (lso-baric) process - Steam process constant pressure process - Problem. Constant temperature and hyperbolic process - Constant temperature (isothermal) process - Hyperbolic process - Problem. Polytropic process - Problem. Isentropic process - Problem. Throttling process - Problem. Measuring dryness fraction of steam - Barrel or bucket calorimeter - Separating calorimeter - Problems. Throttling and combined calorimeter - Important formulae - Problem.
Steam nozzles - Introduction steam nozzles - Types of nozzles - Flow of steam through convergent-divergent nozzle - Friction in a nozzle or nozzle efficiency. Velocity of steam flowing through a nozzle - Example. Mass of steam discharged through nozzle -Example. Critical pressure ratio - Condition for maximum discharge through a nozzle (Critical pressure ratio) - Values for maximum discharge through a nozzle - Example - Values for critical pressure ratio - Physical significance of critical pressure ratio. Diameters of throat and exit for maximum discharge - Example. Super saturated flow through nozzle - Effects of super saturation - Example. Steam injector.
Rankine Cycle- Methods to improve the thermal efficiency - Regenerative Rankine cycle - Reheat Rankine cycle - Advantages. Introduction to turbines - Working principle of steam turbine. Classification of turbines - Impulse turbine - De-Laval impulse turbine. Pressure and velocity of steam in an impulse turbine. Reaction turbine - Pressure and velocity of steam in a reaction turbine - Differences between impulse and reaction turbine. Impulse - reaction turbine - Parson's reaction turbine - Working of Parson's turbine. Velocity compounding - Pressure compounding. Pressure - Velocity compounding - Compounding for reaction turbine. Velocity diagram for impulse turbine - Effect of blade friction - Maximum efficiency of impulse (De-Laval) turbine - Example. Velocity diagram for reaction turbine - Example. Condensing plant - Steam condensers - Advantages of a condenser in a steam power plant - Types of condensers - Surface condenser - Types of surface condensers - Advantages and disadvantages of surface condenser - Jet condenser - Advantages and disadvantages of jet condensers. Efficiencies of steam condenser - Efficiencies of steam condenser - Problem - Mass of cooling water required - Problem. Governing of turbines - Throttle governing. Nozzle control governing - By-pass governing - Comparison of throttle and nozzle control governing.
Gas turbine - Advantages of gas turbine over an I.C engine - Classification of gas turbine - Open cycle gas turbine - Methods to improve overall efficiency. Closed cycle gas turbine - Comparison of closed cycle and open cycle gas turbine. Constant pressure and volume gas turbine - Constant pressure gas turbine - Constant volume gas turbine - Basic requirements of the working medium - Fuels used in gas turbine - Application with limitation of gas turbines.
Jet propulsion - Advantages of jet propulsion over other systems. Classification of jet propulsion engines - Turbo-propeller engine - Turbo jet engine - Ram jet engine - Rocket propulsion. Propellant - Solid propellant of double base and composite type - Choice of propellant systems. Rocket engine - Indian space programme - Comparison between air breathing engine and rocket engine.
Introduction to automobile - Classification of automobile - History of automobile -Milestones of Indian auto industry - Growth of automobiles. Automobile transmission system - Introduction to clutch- The requirement of clutch - Functions of clutch - Principle of friction clutch - Types of clutches. Single plate clutch and multi plate clutch - Single plate clutch - Multi-plate clutch - Types of multi-plate clutch - Vehicles equipped with multi-plate clutch - Introduction to centrifugal clutch - Construction - Working of centrifugal clutch - Advantages and disadvantages - Semi centrifugal clutch - Working -Application of clutches. Gear box - Gear - Types of gear - Why the gear box is required for the automobile? - Functions of the gear box - Types of gear box -Parts of gear box. Sliding mesh type gear box - Working. Constant mesh gear box - Construction of constant mesh gear box. Working principle - Synchromesh gear box - Introduction - Working - Propeller shaft or drive shaft - Need of differential gear - Function of differential gear - Construction of differential gear - Working of differential gear - Axle - Front axle - Classification of axles - Requirements of a rear axle - Semi-floating axle - Three quarter floating axle - Full floating axle - Types of axle housings. Suspension system and shock absorbers - Introduction - Requirements of suspension system - Functions of suspension system - Need of shock absorbers - Hydraulic shock absorber. Steering gear mechanism and steering linkage - Steering gear mechanism -Types of steering gear mechanisms - Ackermann steering. Braking system - Introduction of braking system - Functions of brake.