This course is designed for learners to understand the fundamentals of thermodynamics and to perform thermal analysis on their behavior and performance.
Introduction, Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Avogadro’s law, Joule's law, Properties of gases - Characteristic gas equation and universal gas constant, Problems, Constant volume process, Relation between specific heats. Problems on gas laws.
Basic concepts and definitions- Thermodynamic systems, Types of thermodynamic systems, Thermodynamic properties, Thermodynamic state and equilibrium, Thermodynamic process and cycles, Temperature scales, Pressure. Reversibility- Reversible process, Irreversible process, Condition for reversibility.
Work and heat-Thermodynamic definition of work, Sign convention of work, Heat, Comparison between work and heat. Laws of thermodynamics-Zeroth law of thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics, First law of thermodynamics for a closed system undergoing a process, First law for a cyclic process, Problems. Specific heat-Specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure, Internal energy, Flow energy, Problem. Steady state flow process- Turbines, Compressors, Pumps, Nozzles, Diffusers, Heat exchangers, Throttling process, Energy is a property of a system, First law for an open system under unsteady flow conditions, Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, Problems in SFEE. Second law of thermodynamics-Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, Problems on second law of thermodynamics. Concept of entropy-Available and unavailable energy, The Clausius inequality, Entropy, Entropy change for an irreversible process, Temperature - Entropy diagram, Principle of increase in entropy.
Thermodynamic processes -constant volume process, Problems. Constant pressure or Isobaric process-Expression for work done, Problems. Hyperbolic process, Isothermal process-Expression for work done by the gas during expansion, problems. Adiabatic or Isentropic Process –Expression for workdone by the gas, Expression for adiabatic index, Relation between pressure(P), volume(V) and temperature (T) for adiabatic process, Problems. Polytrophic process -Expression for work done, Expression for polytrophic index, Relation between (P), volume (V) and temperature (T) - Problems on polytrophic process, Problems. Free expansion process-Throttling process, General laws for expansion and compression. Expression for change of entropy -Entropy change during constant volume process, Entropy change during constant pressure process, Entropy change during constant temperature process, Change in entropy in terms of temperature and pressure, Change in entropy interms of pressure and volume, Entropy change during adiabatic process, Change in entropy during polytropic process, Problems.
Air standard cycle-Carnot cycle, Assumptions of Carnot cycle - Air standard efficiency, Significance of Carnot cycle, Limitations of Carnot cycle, Simple problems on Carnot cycle. Otto cycle-Assumptions made in Otto cycle - Air standard efficiency of Otto cycle, Effect of compression ratio on the efficiency of Otto cycle - Problems on Otto cycle. Diesel cycle- Assumptions made in Diesel cycle - Air standard efficiency of diesel cycle, Mean effective pressure, Problems. Comparison of different air standard cycles -Reasons for the highest efficiency of Carnot cycle over other cycles working between same temperature limits, Comparison of Otto cycle and Diesel cycle, Comparison of Carnot and Otto cycles, Comparison of Carnot and Diesel cycles.
Heat engine - Advantages of IC engine over EC engine,Classification of I.C engines, Construction of I.C engine. Fuels and its types – Fuel,Types of fuels,Solid fuels, Advantages and disadvantages of solid fuels,Composition and properties of good commercial solid fuel,Liquid fuels,Advantages and limitations of liquid fuels,Composition and properties of common liquids fuels,Gaseous fuels, Advantages and disadvantages of gaseous fuels,Composition and properties of gaseous fuels,Merits and demerits of liquid fuels over solid fuels,Merits and demerits of gaseous fuels over liquid fuels. Calorific value of fuels-Dulong's formula for HCV and LCV, Problem. Calorimeter-Bomb calorimeter,Junker's gas calorimeter,Problem. Four and two stroke diesel engine-Construction of four stroke diesel engine,Working of four stroke diesel engine,Construction of two stroke diesel engine,Working of two stroke diesel engine. Four and two stroke petrol engine-Construction of four stroke petrol engine,Four stroke petrol engine,Construction of two stroke petrol engine,Two stroke petrol engine. Comparison-Comparison of two stroke and four stroke engine,Comparison of SI and CI engines.Valve and port timing diagrams-Valve timing diagram,Theoretical valve timing diagram for four stroke petrol engine, Actual valve timing diagram,Port-timing diagram for 2-stroke engine,Theoretical valve timing diagram for 4-stroke diesel engine,Actual valve timing diagram 4-stroke diesel engine, Port-timing diagram two stroke diesel engine, Theoretical port timing diagram,Actual valve timing diagram 4-stroke petrol engine.Carburetor – Introduction,Simple carburetor,Constant choke type carburetor,Zenith carburetor. Cooling system-Cooling system in I.C engines, Air cooling, Water cooling system. Ignition systems- Battery ignition system,Magneto ignition system,Comparison of battery and magnetic system. Lubrication – Friction, Types of friction,Function of lubrication system Types of lubrication. Governing and supercharging- Governing of IC engines, Supercharging. Engine trials, Brake power,Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), Specific fuel consumption,Efficiencies of engines, Indicated thermal efficiency,Example. Morse test-Energy balance (Heat balance)
Introduction-Purpose of testing an I.C. Engine,I.C. Engine testing- Mean effective pressure,Indicated power, Piston indicator, Brake power, Frictional power - Mechanical and Thermal efficiencies -Specific fuel consumption - Measurement of fuel consumption –Volumetric efficiency, Factors affecting volumetric efficiency. Problems- Problems on IP and BP,Problems on IP,BP and Mechanical efficiency,Problems on thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption,Problems on volumetric efficiency,Problems on thermal efficiency. Heat balance sheet– Problems. Testing on IC engine -Morse test, Test procedure. Combustion-Atomic mass and molecular mass of important elements and its compounds, Mass analysis of fuel-Amount of required. Air requirement calculations -Problems, Combustion equations, Problems.Analysis of fuels-Conversion of volumetric analysis of fuel into gravimetric analysis(Mass analysis), Problem, Conversion of gravimetric analysis into volumetric analysis Problem, Mass of carbon in flue gas, Mass of dry flue gases. Orsat apparatusCarbon dioxide recorder,Problems.Gaseous pollutants in flue gases-Vehicle emission standards Sources of emission, Combustion Process, Types of Emissions, Hydrocarbons in Exhaust Gases,Oxides of Nitrogen,Particulates, Carbon Monoxide Carbon-di-oxide (CO2), Sulfur content in Fuels. Pollution control-Evaporation Emission Control, EVAP System Components, Catalytic Converter Crankcase Ventilation, Exhaust Emission Control,Operation of Exhaust Emission Control,Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).
Air compressor - Air compressor, Applications of compressed air, Working principle of a compressor, Classification of compressors, Classification of reciprocating and rotary compressors, Reciprocating air compressor, Work done and power required by a single stage compressor. Problems on single stage reciprocating air compressors - Problem on air compressor, Efficiencies of compressor. Single stage air compressor with clearance - Single stage air compressor with clearance, Factors influencing the volumetric efficiency, Problem on air compressor. Multi-stage air compressor - Multi-stage air compressor, Inter cooler, Work required for multi-stage air compressor, Conditions for maximum efficiency, Condition for minimum work in two stage compressor. Problems on multistage air compressor - Problem on multistage air compressor. Rotary compressors - Rotary compressors, Types of rotary compressors, Positive displacement compressor, Vane blower compressor, Comparison of reciprocating and rotary compressor. Steady flow compressors - Non-positive displacement (steady flow) compressors, Axial flow compressor, Comparison between centrifugal and axial flow compressors.