This learning solution covers instrumental concepts of surveying like theodolite, Tacheometric and plane table surveying. Additionally it provides the details about setting out works,traversing and their calculations
Plane table surveying - Introduction to plane table surveying, Plane table instruments and accessories, Working operations. Methods of plane tabling – Radiation, Intersection, Resection, Traversing, Resection by three point problem, Resection by two point problem, Errors in plane table surveying.
Traversing –Methods of traversing, Chain traversing, Chain and compass traversing, Theodolite traversing, Traversing by direct observation of angles. Traverse adjustments - Latitude and departures, Closing error, Balancing the traverse, Problems.
Introduction to theodolite surveying - Theodolite surveying, Essential parts of theodolite, Fundamental terms of theodolite, Application of theodolite. Adjustments of vernier transit - Temporary adjustments, Permanent adjustments, Adjustments of plate level, Adjustment of line of sight, Adjustment of the horizontal axis, Adjustment of altitude level and vertical index frame. Angle measurement - Measurement of horizontal angles, Horizontal angles by repetition method, Horizontal angles by reiteration method, Measurement of vertical angles. Trigonometrical levelling - Height and distance, Base of object inaccessible, Problems related to trigonometrical levelling. Theodolite traversing - Traversing by fast observation of angles, Plotting the traverse survey, Closing error, Gales traverse table. Omitted measurements - Latitude and departure, Problems related to omitted measurements.
Tacheometric surveying - Introduction to tacheometric surveying, Instruments used in tacheometric survey, Holding of staff, Methods of reading the staff, Different systems of tacheometric measurements. Tacheometry - Calculation of tacheometric constant, Problems, Calculate the distance and reduced levels. Stadia tacheometry - Principle of stadia tacheometry, Theory of stadia tacheometry, Determination of stadia constant, Staff held vertical to the line of sight, Staff held normal to the line of sight, Problems. Anallatic lens - Anallatic lens with inclined slight, Advantages and disadvantages of anallatic lens, Anallatic lens with internal focusing telescope, Problem based on anallatic lens. Movable hair method or subtense method - Principle of subtense method, Subtense diaphragm, Subtense bar, Problems.
Curves – Introduction, Classification of curves, Basic Definitions, Designation of curve, Elements of simple curve. Setting out of simple curves - Linear methods of setting out, By ordinates from the long chord, By successive bisection of arcs or chords, By offsets from the tangents, By deflection distances, Instrumental methods, Two theodolite method, Tacheometric method. Setting out of simple curves - Problems. Circular curves - Introduction to circular curves, Definitions and notations, Designation of curve, Elements of simple curve. Compound and reverse curves - Elements of compound curves, Setting out compound curve, Elements of a reverse curve. Transition curves - Introduction to transition curves, Functions and requirements of transition curves, Expression for cant/super elevation, Length of transition curves, Elements of transition curves, Computation of various quantities, Setting out the combined curve by deflection angles, Setting out by tangent offsets. Vertical curves - Introduction to vertical curves, Types of vertical curves, Length of vertical curve, Computation and setting out of vertical curves, Sight distance , Minimum length of a summit curve in terms of sight distance, Minimum length of the sag curve, Vertical curve passing through a fixed point.