This learning solution covers some advanced topics in surveying. Concepts of control survey, Adjustments in Survey, Total station survey, GPS survey, Hydrographic survey, Astronomical Survey, Photogrammetric survey and Remote sensing are ellaborated in detail. Also working and uses of advanced instruments like Total station, GPS are explained.
Controls for setting out of building - Introduction to setting out of works, Horizontal control, Vertical control, Setting out of building. Triangulation - Introduction to triangulation, Objects of triangulation, Classification of triangulation, Triangulation figures or system, Well-conditioned triangle. Base line measurement - Base line measurement using rigid bars, Base line measurement using flexible apparatus, Base line measurement using tachometer or EDM instruments. Tape corrections - Correction for absolute length, Correction for temperature, Correction for sag, Correction for slope or vertical alignment, Correction for horizontal alignment, Reduction of mean sea level, Problems based on corrections. Satellite station and reduction to centre - Satellite station and reduction to centre. Trigonometrical levelling - Height and distance, Base of object inaccessible, Base of object inaccessible, Problems on trigonometrical leveling - Problems. Traversing - Methods of traversing, Chain traversing, Chain and compass traversing, Theodolite traversing, Traversing by direct observation of angles. Latitude and departure - Plotting the traverse survey, Closing error, Gales traverse table.
Theory of errors - Introduction to errors, Sources of error, Classification of errors, Definitions related to errors, Laws of accidental errors. Weighted observations - Observations with same weight, Observations with weight, Problems related to weighted observations. Errors and corrections in quantities - Propagation of standard errors, Correction to field measurements, Normal equation method, Problems on normal equation method. Most Probable Values (MPV) - MPV of directly observed values, MPV of indirectly observed values, MPV of indirectly observed values by method of differences, Problems for finding MPV. Method of correlates - Problem based on method of correlates. Levels and triangle adjustments - Adjustments in levels, Triangulation adjustments, Station adjustment, Figure adjustment, Adjustment of plane triangle, Adjustment of a spherical triangle, Problems on triangle adjustments.
Introduction to total station surveying - Parts of total station, Important operations in total station, Features of total station, Advantages of total station, Disadvantages of total station. Classification of total station system - Electro optical system, Infrared instruments, Geodimeters, Wild tachymeter. Microwave system - Microwave instrument, Tellurometer. Fundamental measurements - Horizontal angle, Vertical angle, Slope distance, Traversing and trilateration. Cares and errors in total station - Cares in total station, Sources of Error in total station.
GPS surveying - Introduction to GPS, Details of GPS segments, Space segment, Control segments, Types of control segments, User segment, GPS signal structure. GPS receivers - Structure of GPS receivers, Classification of GPS receivers, Geodetic receivers, Consideration in selection of GPS receivers, Data processing in receiver. GPS errors and accuracy - Principles of GPS positioning, Methods of GPS positioning, GPS errors and accuracy, Selective availability. Orbital determination and representation - GPS satellite orbits, GPS satellite coordinates, Types of ephemeris, GPS data formats. GPS surveying techniques and triangulation - Rapid static survey, Kinematic surveys, Reoccupation, Stop and Go (semi-kinematic).
Hydrographic surveying - Introduction to hydrographic surveying, Horizontal and vertical control, Tides and mean sea level, Tide gauges, Sounding, Equipment’s used in sounding, Sounding methods, Observations from shore, Observations from the boat, Three point problem. Astronomical surveying - Introduction to astronomical surveying, Important terms in astronomical surveying, Co-ordinate systems, The horizon system, The dependent equatorial system. Photogrammetric surveying - Principles of photogrammetry, Photographs, Classification of oblique photographs. Remote sensing - Introduction to remote sensing, Application of remote sensing, Application of remote sensing in civil engineering, Ideal remote sensing system, Electromagnetic radiation and the atmosphere, Types of sensors.