This learning solution provides the knowledge about various basic principles and surveying concepts .Also it has comprehensive briefing of chain surveying, compass surveying,levelling and contouring techniques and its applications.
Introduction to surveying –Primary divisions of surveying, Classification of surveying, Principles of surveying, Plan and map, Scales, Problem, Field work and office work, Units of linear measurement, Units of angular measurement. Chain surveying -Method of linear measurement, Introduction to chain surveying, Survey stations and lines, Instruments used for chaining, Chaining, Chaining on sloping or uneven ground, Setting a right angle in chain line. Ranging - Direct ranging, Direct ranging by line ranger, Indirect ranging, Random line ranging, Reciprocal ranging. Errors in linear measurements and their corrections - Accuracy and errors, Types of errors, Accidental errors and mistakes, Errors in chaining, Incorrect length of chain, Tape corrections, Problems, Introduction to errors, Sources of errors, Classification of errors, Field and office work. Obstacles in chaining – Introduction, Chaining obstructed but vision free, Chaining free but vision obstructed, Both chaining and vision obstructed, Problems. Conventional signs - Field work and office work, Plotting of chain surveying, Conventional signs. Maps - Plan and map, Scales, Introduction to maps, Classification of maps, Map scale, Conventional symbols in maps, Map layout, Survey of India map numbering systems. Field work procedure - Introduction to field book, Field work and office work, Plotting of chain surveying.
Compass surveying - Introduction to compass surveying, Theory of magnetism, Prismatic compass, Adjustments in prismatic compass, Surveyor compass, Adjustments in surveyor compass, Difference between surveyor and prismatic compass, Angles and bearings, Designation of bearings, Fore bearing and back bearing. Operations involved in compass surveying – Introduction, Reconnaissance of the area, Temporary adjustment, Recording the bearings, Sources of errors in compass traversing, Precautions to be taken in compass survey, Limits of precision in compass surveying. Problems. Conversion of bearing and included angles - Conversion of bearing from one system to the other, Problems based on conversion from W.C.B to R.B, Problems based on conversion from R.B to W.C.B, Calculation of angles from bearing, Problems based on included angle. Local attraction and magnetic declination - Elimination of local attraction, Problems, Dip of the magnetic needle, Magnetic declination, Problems based on magnetic declination, Chain and compass traversing, Closing error, Balancing the traverse.
Levelling - Introduction to leveling, Basic terms used in leveling, Instruments used in leveling, Levelling staff. Adjustments in leveling - Temporary adjustments, Permanent adjustments. Booking and reducing levels - Height of collimation method, Rise and fall method, Comparison, Problems on height of instrument method, Problems on rise and fall method. Balancing of sights curvature and refraction - Balancing back sights and fore sights, Balancing sight on a slope, Problems, Balancing of sights curvature, Refraction, Problems on curvature and refraction correction. Methods of leveling - Direct leveling, Differential leveling, Fly leveling, Reciprocal leveling, Longitudinal levelling or longitudinal sectioning, Cross levelling or cross sectioning, Problems on reciprocal leveling. Errors in leveling – Levelling problem, Errors in leveling, Precaution in levelling. Precise leveling -Introduction to precise leveling, Levelling instrument for precise leveling, Precise levelling staff, Field procedure for precise leveling, Field notes, Daily adjustment of precise level. Longitudinal and cross section levelling - Profile levelling, Plotting of the profile levelling, Cross sectioning, Plotting of the cross sections.
Contouring – Contouring, Characteristics of contour, Use of contour, Interpolation of contour. Methods of contouring - Methods of contouring, Direct method, Radial lines method, Grid or squares method, Cross sections method. Contour map - Uses of contour maps, Calculation of reservoir capacity, Problem on calculation of reservoir capacity. Interpolation of contour – Introduction, Estimation method, Arithmetical calculations, Graphical methods, Contour drawing. Contour gradient - Locating contour gradient, Field location of contour gradient, Example. Alignment of road, railway, canal - Alignment of road in a contour map, Alignment of a railway line, Alignment of canal.
Computation of areas - Introduction to computation of areas, Computation by dividing area into triangles, Computation by offsets to base line, Computation by latitudes and departures, Computation of area by co-ordinates, Problems based on computations of areas. Computation of volumes - Introduction to computation of volumes, Computation from cross sections, Embankments and cuttings, Embankment and cutting for a level section, Embankment and cutting for two level section, Prismoidal and trapezoidal formula, The curvature correction, Computation of volume from spot levels, Computation from contours, Problems based on volume of embankment, Problems based on capacity of reservoir, Problems based on volume of cutting. Mass haul diagram - Introduction to mass haul diagram, Terms related to mass haul diagram, Construction and properties of mass haul diagram. Route surveying - Introduction to route surveying, Reconnaissance survey, Preliminary survey, Location survey, Construction survey. Setting out of works - Introduction to setting out of works, Controls for setting out, Setting out in vertical direction, Setting out of buildings, Route surveys for highways, railways and waterways.
Abney level - Introduction to minor instruments, Working principle of abney level, Component parts of abney level, Measurement of vertical angle, Measurement of slope of the ground, Tracing grade contours. Pantagraph - Principle of pantagraph, Component parts of pantagraph, Enlarging the given map, Reducing the given map. Planimeter - Introduction to planimeter, Working principle of planimeter, Specifications of electronic planimeter, Function keys of electronic planimeter, Measurement of area using electronic planimeter. Electronic Planimeter - Introduction to Planimeter, Working principles of Planimeter, Specifications of Electronic Planimeter, Functions of Electronic Planimeter, Measurement of Area by Electronic Planimeter. Electronic distance measurement – Introduction, Types of EDM Instruments, Principle of EDM, Principle of measurement of distance using EDM.