Computer components are divided into two major categories namely hardware and software. Hardware is the machine itself and its connected devices such as monitor, keyboard, mouse etc. Software are the set of programs that make use of hardware for performing various functions such as problem solving techniques, basic of c programming, array and string.
History of computers - Introduction, Evolution of computers. Block diagram of a computer - Digital computer, Block diagram of a computer. Software - Software, Application software. Generation of computers - First generation(1940 - 1956) - Vacuum tubes, Second generation (1956 - 1963) – Transistors, Third generation (1964 –Early 1970s) - Integrated circuits, Fourth generation (1971-at Present) - Microprocessors (VLSI), Fifth generation (Present and beyond) - Artificial intelligence, Generations of computers. Classification of computers - Based on operating principles, Based on utility, Based on size and capability, Classification of computers based on size and capability. Components of a computer system - Components of a computer system, Input devices, Output devices, Functions of CPU, Functions of memory Unit, Primary memory and secondary memory. Number system - Introduction, Number system, Decimal conversion, Binary conversion, Octal conversion, Hexadecimal conversion, Binary arithmetic, 1's and 2's complements, Binary code decimal. Need for logical analysis and thinking - Need for logical analysis and thinking, Problem solving techniques, Introduction to algorithm development, Steps involved in developing an algorithm, Algorithm to find sum of three numbers and fahrenheit temperature, Flowchart, Algorithm and flowchart, Algorithm to find factorial N, Pseudo code, Problem solving through algorithm, flowchart and pseudocode.
Problem solving strategies - Need for logical analysis and thinking, Problem solving techniques, Problem formulation. Top down design - Top down design, Top down design examples. Introduction to algorithm development - Introduction to algorithm development, Steps involved in developing an algorithm, Algorithm to find sum of three numbers and fahrenheit temperature. Flowchart - Flowchart, Flowchart symbols, Algorithm and flowchart, Algorithm to find factorial N.
Problem formulation - Problem formulation. Introduction to ‘ C’ programming and fundamentals - Introduction to program background, Introduction to 'C' programming, Importance of C. Structure of a 'C' program - Structure of C program, Creating and running the program. Constants, variables - C character set and tokens, Identifiers and keywords. Data types - Data types. Expressions using operators in 'C' - Operators, Other types of operators, Expressions, Precedence and associativity, Evaluation of Expressions. Managing input and output operations - Introduction to Input/Output statements, Unformatted Input/Output statements, Formatted Input/Output statements. Decision making and branching - Introduction to statements, Decision making and branching statements, If statement, If - else statement, Nested if…else statement, Cascaded if else, Switch statement, Conditional operator (Ternary operator). Looping statements - Looping statements, while loop, do while statement, for loop statements, Nested for loop, Loop control statements. Solving simple scientific and statistical problems - Solving simple scientific and statistical problems. Programming examples and exercise - Count the ranges, Getting started, Setting bits at a position n, Symbolic constants, Upper case letters to lower case letters, Armstrong number, Character is vowel or consonant, Even or odd, Factorial of a number, Largest number among three numbers, Leap year, Multiplication table, Number is positive or negative, Palindrome number, Reverse an integer, Roots of quadratic equation, Exercise.
Arrays - Introduction to an array, One – dimensional array, Initialization of one-dimensional array, Passing array elements as argument to functions. Multi dimensional arrays - Two-dimensional array, Multi-dimensional array, Array applications.
String - Introduction to strings, String declaration and initialization. String operations - Introduction to string manipulation function, String concatenate [strcat()],String compare [strcmp()],String copy [strcpy()],String length [strlen()],String reverse [strrev()].Array of string- Array of string. String input and output functions - Strings I/O functions. Simple programs of sorting and searching - Program to sort an array of elements, Insertion sort. Array of string and data conversion - Array of string, String/data conversion.