Physical Metallurgy

Features Includes:

  • 91 - 3D/2D Animation
  • 564 Pages of Content
  • 90 Lecture Hours
  • 2 Solved Problems
  • 129 Quiz
  • Suitable for All Technical University Syllabus

Course Description

This course enable the learners to understand basic metal structure, thermal equilibrium diagram and MIcroscopic and Macroscopic examinations of metals.


  • The student will be able to understand the Structure of Metals and alloys
  • Understand about Diffusion
  • Understand about Solidification of Metals and alloys
  • Understand about Binary thermal equilibrium Diagrams
  • Understand about Study of Iron-Carbon System
  • Understand about Study of Important Non-ferrous binary systems
  • Understand about Characterization of metals

Atomic bonds in solids- Introduction - Ionic or electrovalent bond - Covalent bond - Metallic bond - Properties of metallic bond. Space Lattice and Unit cell, Lattice parameter - Space lattice - Simple cubic structure - Unit cell - Lattice parameters of unit cell. Classification of crystal systems in space lattice - The crystal system - Crystal systems. Co-ordination and effective number of atoms - Co-ordination number of BCC - Co-ordination number of FCC - Co-ordination number of HCP. Packing factor and calculation of C/a ratio of HCP - Packing factor of BCC structure - Atomic packing factor of FCC structure - Calculation of C/a ratio in the HCP structure - Packing factor of HCP structure.


Diffusion- Introduction - Diffusion - Fick's law - Fick's second law of diffusion. Effect of temperature and types of diffusion - Effect of temperature on diffusion - Types of diffusion mechanism - Vacancy mechanism - Interstitials mechanism - Dislocations - Atoms interchange mechanism.


Metal and alloy- Metal - Alloys - Difference between metals and alloys. Phase and its types - Phase - Phase diagram of pure substances - Types of phases. Solid solutions and their types - Alloys - Solid solutions - Solid solution vs liquid solution - Types of solid solutions - Substitutional solid solution -Interstitial solid solution. Formation of solid solutions - Factors governing solid solubility - Possibilities of solid solutions. Cooling curves - Cooling curve - Cooling curve for pure metal - Cooling curve for alloy - Difference between pure metals and alloy - Difference between pure metals and alloy. Process of crystallization with respect to nucleation - Crystallization - Nuclei formation - Crystal growth - Effect of rate of cooling on grain formation. Dendritic growth and coring - Formation of dendrites - Coring. Nucleation - Nucleation - Homogeneous nucleation - Heterogeneous nucleation.


Phase diagram- Phase diagrams - Why should phase diagrams be studied - Information from phase diagram - Terminology used in phase diagrams - Types of equilibrium diagrams - Binary equilibrium diagram - Ternary equilibrium diagram. Binary systems - Classification of binary diagram - Types of binary phase diagram. Isomorphous system - Isomorphous system - Construction of equilibrium diagram of isomorphous system - Construction of diagram - Lever rule - Example 1 - Cooling of an alloy in isomorphous system. Phase rule - Phase rule - Gibbs phase rule - Application of phase rule. Amount of phases - Problem. Eutectic systems - Eutectic system - Examples of eutectic system - Phase diagram of eutectic system - Phase diagrams - Binary eutectic systems. Property variations in eutectic system - Property variations in eutectic system - Properties of an eutectic alloy. Peritectic and eutectoid systems - Peritectic system - Eutectoid system. Peritectoid, monotectic and synthetic systems - Peritectoid systems - Monotectic system - Solidification of monotectic alloy - Types of monotectic alloys - Syntectic reaction - Equilibrium diagram of syntectic reaction.


Allotropy and transformations in pure iron- Introduction - Allotropy - Allotropic forms of pure iron - Critical points. Iron carbon system - Introduction - Iron-carbon equilibrium diagram - Importance of Fe-C system - Characteristics of Fe-Fe3C diagram - Iron carbon system - Eutectoid transformation - Eutectic transformation - Critical temperature lines. Steel and cast iron - Iron carbon system - Comparison of steel and cast iron - Steels and cast irons in Fe-Fe3C diagram - Steel - Cast iron. Transformations of steels on slow cooling - Variations in microstructure in steels - Transformation during slow carbon of steel - Classification of steels - Hypo eutectoid steels - Hypereutectoid steels - Classification of plain carbon steels - Iron carbon system - Critical temperature. Cast iron - Cast iron - Classification of cast irons - White cast iron - Grey cast iron - Malleable cast iron - Nodular cast iron - Alloy cast iron.


Copper-zinc equilibrium diagram- Classification of engineering materials - Copper - Uses of copper - Properties of copper alloys - Phase diagram of Cu-Zn alloy - Peritectic reaction. Brass and its types - Brass - Classification of brass - Alpha brasses - Microstructure of alpha + beta brasses. Season cracking and high tensile brass - Season cracking - Stress-corrosion cracking - Dezincification - High tensile brass - Muntz metal. Phase diagram of copper-tin and bronze - Phase diagram of Cu-Sn - Bronze - Classification of bronzes - Gun metal. Phase diagram of copper and nickel alloys - Cu-Ni alloys - Cupronickels - Phase diagram of Cu-Ni alloy - Cu-Ni alloys - Monel metal - Cu-Ni alloys - Nickel silvers. Phase diagram of aluminium-silicon system - Aluminium alloys - Duralumin - Magnalumin - Phase diagram of Al-Si system - Cast structure of Al-Si eutectic system - Modified structure of Al-Si eutectic. Phase diagram of Pb-Sn & Pb-Sb system - Lead - Phase diagram of Pb-Sn system - Lead and antimony alloys - Babbits - Tin based Babbit.


Microscope- Metallography - Metallurgical microscope - Parts of microscope - Types of microscopes - Principle of metallurgical microscope - Operation. Applications and properties of objective lenses - Microscope objectives - Achromatic objectives - Apochromatic objectives - Special objectives - Optical errors - Coma - Properties of objective lenses. Microscope eyepieces - Microscope eyepieces - Negative type - Positive type -Amplifying type. Electron microscope - Electron microscope - Principle of electron microscope - Difference between electron microscope and optical microscope - Scanning electron microscope - Transmission electron microscope. Macroscopic and microscopic examination - Macroscopic examination - Microscopic examination - Difference between microscope and macroscope. Preparation of specimen - Preparation of specimen for microscope examination - Mounting - Grinding - Polishing - Etching - Etching reagents - Etchants for important ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys - Cast iron - Copper alloys - Low carbon steel etchants - High carbon steel etchants - Stainless steel etchants - Tin alloy etchants - Zinc alloy etchants.