Iron Making

Features Includes:

  • 67 - 3D/2D Animation
  • 551 Pages of Content
  • 90 Lecture Hours
  • 121 Quiz
  • Suitable for All Technical University Syllabus

Course Description

This course enable the learners to understand the Iron Ores And Their Preparation, Blast Furnace Profile, Reactions, Equipment, Operations & recent trends, Alternate Methods Of Pig Iron Production.


  • the student will be able to understand Introduction of iron making
  • understand about Burden Distribution
  • understand about Blast furnace profile and reactions
  • understand about Blast furnace plant and equipment
  • understand about Blast furnace Operation
  • understand about Alternative Methods of Pig iron production
  • understand about Recent trends in blast furnace operation

Types of iron ores, chemical composition & specific gravity of various ores - Introduction -Native metal - Mineral - Iron ores in India - What is achieved during mineral preparation? - Consequences of mineral preparation - Processes involved in mineral preparation. Chemical analysis of iron ore - Introduction - Types of iron ores. Iron ores based on colour & gangue materials - Introduction - Iron ores. Importance & factors of evaluation of ores - Introduction - Evaluation of ore - Location of iron ores - Composition of the gangue - Treatment & preparation of iron ore. Iron ore reserves in India - Introduction - Iron deposits in India - Iron deposits from Madhya Pradesh - Iron deposits from other parts of India - Indian iron ores and their utilization - Details of iron ore export from India - Estimated reserves of iron ores in India,in M.T - Upstream &metallic - India's potential. Sources of iron ores for various steel plants in India - Introduction - Source of iron ores in India. Preparation of iron ores for charging into blast furnace - Need for preparation of iron ores for charging - Ore preparation - Ore preparation methods. Agglomeration - Introduction - Purpose of agglomeration - Methods of agglomeration - Briquetting - Nodulising - Sintering - Pelletizing. Sintering- Introduction - Raw materials for sintering - Principle of sintering - Factors affecting sintering - Quality of sinter - Porosity of the charge. Dwight Lloyd sintering machine - Construction of Dwight Lloyd sintering machine - Operation of the Dwight-Lloyd sintering machine. Various types of sinter - Process variables - Types of sinter. Pelletising & its advantages & disadvantages of pellets over sinter - Introduction - Steps in pelletisation - Feed size - Green ball production - Drying and firing of green balls - Comparison of pellets and sinter.


Blast furnace burden - Introduction - Charging methods of raw material - Bucket charging - Skip charging - Conveyer charging - Double bell system - Bell less charging. Importance of burden distribution - Elements of distribution - Importance of burden distribution - Permeability of burden - The size of raw materials - The method of charging the burden. Factors effecting burden distribution - Factors affecting burden distribution - Design of blast furnace and its charging devices - Physical properties of charge materials - Sequence of charging. Effect of particle size on burden distribution - Effect of size of charge particles


Profile of blast furnace & useful volume of blast furnace - What is a blast furnace? - Introduction to the profile of blast furnace - Profile of blast furnace - Some specifications of European furnaces - Useful volume of blast furnace. Lining details of blast furnace - Details of lining in blast furnace - Different parts of lining in blast furnace. Raw materials required for pig iron - Elevation of blast furnace - Raw materials for production - Different methods - Flux - Conversion of raw material to pig iron - Materials required for blast furnace - To produce 1 ton of pig iron - Composition of pig iron. Ascending column of gases - Introduction - Ascending gases - Solution loss - Coke rate - Composition of blast furnace gas. Descending column of raw materials - Descending column of raw materials - Kinetics of Iron ore reduction - Direct reduction - Indirect reduction - Reactions in blast furnace.


Layout of a blast furnace - Blast furnace equipment - Auxiliary equipment - Function of a blast furnace. Appliances of blast furnace - Blower house (Reference) - Blowers, boilers, pumps (Reference) - Hot blast stoves and gas cleaning - Raw materials storage and handling - Blast furnace products disposal. Raw material storage & its supply to blast furnace - Raw material storage - Raw materials handling - Raw materials supplied to blast furnace. Construction of a hot blast stove - Construction of blast furnace stove - Other attachments of stove. Operation of a hot blast stove - Hot blast stove - Heating the cold blast - Heating cycle - Checker work. Dust catcher - Introduction of dust catcher - Construction of dust catcher - Mechanism of dust settling - Efficiency of the dust catcher. Scrubber & ventury washer - Construction of scrubber - Gas cleaning in scrubber - Ventury washer. Secondary cleaning, utilization of blast furnace gas - Fine (or) secondary cleaning - Utilization of blast furnace gas - Electrostatic precipitator.


Starting the blast furnace - Introduction - Blowing-in - Drying - Filling - Lighting and operating until routine practice is established. Banking of blast furnace - Banking - Steps involved in banking the furnace - Observations after banking the furnace - Restarting the furnace. Blowing out operation & composition of pig iron - Blowing out - Slag - Disposal of slag - Composition of pig iron. Condition for removal of Si, Mn, S & P - Removal of silicon - Removal of manganese - Removal of phosphorous - Removal of sulphur - Removal of carbon - Control of temperature - Cold & hot blast furnace. Desulphurisation by soda ash treatment - Desulphurization - Soda ash treatment - Desulphurization with solid lime (Reference). Methods of disposing pig iron - Pig iron disposal - Methods of disposal of pig iron. Constituents of blast furnace slag - Constituents of blast furnace slag - Slag basicity - Slag - By-product value of slag - Another way of producing slag by-products (Reference) - Blast furnace slag as construction material. Ladle desiliconisation - Ladle-desiliconisation. Irregularities in blast furnace operation - Introduction - Irregularities in blast furnace. Causes & remedies for irregularities in blast furnace - Hanging - Scaffolding - Slip - Chilled hearth - Pillaring - Break outs Stoppages in gas off takes - Leaking tuyeres - Hot spots.


Other methods of Pig iron production - Introduction - Necessity of other methods of pig iron production. Sponge iron and midrex process - Sponge iron - Sponge iron making processes - Midrex process. Rotary kiln process - Introduction to rotary kill - Rotary kiln process - Ring formation in rotary kiln - Corex process introduction - Reduction Shaft.


Recent trends in blast furnace operation - Development in the iron ore charge - Developments in coke charge - Developments in the flux - Developments in the hot blast. Large capacity blast furnaces and high top pressure operation - Modern trends in blast furnace - Large capacity blast furnaces - Large capacity furnace in Japan - Problems and modifications - Large blast furnaces in the world - High top pressure - Advantages of high top pressure. Burden preparation - Burden preparation - Oxygen enrichment - Oxygen enrichment - Advantages of oxygen enrichment - Humidification of blast - Humidification of blast - Presence of moisture in the blast - Effect of steam in the blast. Fuel injection through tuyeres - Fuel injection through tuyeres - Pulverized coal injection - Influence of coal quality.