This learning solution explains the details about liquids and its properties. Topics like liquid properties, liquid pressure and measurement, liquid flow, flow through orifices and mouth pieces, flow over notches and weirs, flow through pipes and open channels, pumps turbines and hydro electric power plants are ellaborated briefly.
Introduction to fluid - Hydraulics- Properties of fluid - Mass density - Specific volume and specific weight - Specific gravity. Viscosity, capillarity and compressibility - Vapor pressure and surface tension.
Pressure concept - Problems on pressure conversion- Problems. Pressure measuring instruments -Simple manometers. U-tube manometer - U-tube differential manometer-U – tube differential manometer - Inverted U-tube differential manometer. Problems in manometer – Manometer based problems. Hydrostatic force - Total pressure and centre of pressure - Total pressure on a horizontal plane surface - Total pressure on a vertical plane surface - Centre of pressure for vertical plane surface - Centre of pressure based problems. Total pressure and centre of pressure on inclined immersed body - Total pressure on inclined immersed body - Centre of pressure for inclined plane surface- Problems. Reactions at hinges on lock gates- Lock gates - Problem.
Types of flow of fluid - Types of fluid flow - Steady and unsteady flow - Uniform and non-uniform flow - Rotational and Irrotational flow - Laminar and turbulent flow. Equation of continuity and energies of liquid in motion - Equation of continuity - Pressure energy - Kinetic energy or velocity energy - Potential energy - Total energy of a liquid particle in motion - Problems. Bernoulli's theorem - Limitations of Bernoulli's theorem – Problems. Venturimeter - Design parameters of venturimeter - Discharge through Venturimeter- Application of Venturimeter – Problems. Problems on venturimeter - Problems. Orifice meter- Advantages and disadvantages - Problems. Pitot tube – Problems.
Introduction to orifice and mouthpiece - Discharge through small orifice. Hydraulic co - efficients - Co–efficient of velocity (Cv) - Co–efficient of contraction (Cc) - Co–efficient of discharge (Cd) - Co–efficient of resistance (Cr). Experimental determination of hydraulic co- efficients - Problems. Discharge through a large rectangular orifice - Problems. Discharge through submerged and partially submerged orifices - Discharge through fully submerged orifice – Problems - Discharge through partially submerged orifice - Problem. Time of emptying a tank through an orifice - Problems. Flow through mouthpieces - Mouthpiece - Classification of mouthpieces. Problems on mouthpiece – Problems.
Notches and weirs - Difference between orifice and notch - Classification of notches - Discharge over rectangular notch - Problems. Discharge over triangular notches - Advantages of triangular notches over rectangular notches - Problems. Discharge over trapezoidal notch– Problem. Problem on discharge over notch –Problems. Weirs - Types of weirs - Discharge over rectangular weirs - Velocity approach - Francis formula for discharge over a rectangular weir - Problems. Bazin's formula - Problems. Sharp crested weir and broad crested weir - Discharge over sharp crested weir - Discharge over a broad crested weir – Problems.
Loss of energy in pipes - Major energy loss. Minor energy losses - Minor energy (head) loss - Loss of head due to sudden enlargement - Loss of head due to sudden contraction - Loss of head at the entrance of a pipe - Loss of head at the exit of a pipe. Hydraulic gradient - Hydraulic gradient and total energy line. Flow through parallel and compound pipe - Flow through parallel pipes, Flow through series or compound pipe Equivalent pipe, Problem. Laminar and turbulent flow- Reynolds number - Importance of Reynolds number. Problems on friction factor – Problems. Problems on minor head loss – Problems.
Flow through open channel - Introduction to flow through open channels - Types of flow through open channels - Terminologies of open channel flow. The Chezy's equation and Manning equation - The Chezy's equation - The Manning equation. Bazin's formula and Kutter's formula - Bazin's formula, The Ganguillet- Kutter's formula. Solved examples in open channel flow – Problems. Conditions for most economical section of channel - Most economical rectangular channel - Most economical trapezoidal section of a channel - Conditions for economical section of channel. Problems on channel section design – Problems.
Pumps - Introduction to pump - Classifications of pump - Reciprocating pump - Single acting reciprocating pump - Double acting reciprocating pump - Advantages and Disadvantages of centrifugal pump. Centrifugal pump - Construction of centrifugal pump - Working of centrifugal pump - Multi-stage centrifugal pump - Advantages and disadvantages - Comparison between Centrifugal pump and Reciprocating pump. Uses of Jet, air lift and deep well pump - Jet pump - Air lift pump - Deep-well pump. Hydraulic turbine - Introduction to turbine - Classification of hydraulic turbine. Pelton wheel turbine. Francis turbine - Difference between impulse turbine and reaction turbine. Draft tube - Types of draft tube.
Hydro electric power plant - Introduction to hydro electric power plant - Working of hydro electric power plant - Requirements of hydro electric power plant - Requirements of hydro electric power plant - Advantages of hydro-electric power station. Function of surge tank - Surge tank - Types of surge tank. Classifications of hydro electric power plant - Classification according to availability of water head - Medium head hydro-electric power plant - High head hydro electric power plant – Hydro electric power plant.