# Engineering Physics - II

Product: Theory Subject
Categories: Engineering
Department: Common Subjects

#### Features Includes:

• 280 - 3D/2D Animation
• 900 Pages of Content
• 60 Lecture Hours
• 32 Solved Problems
• 90 Quiz
• Suitable for All Technical University Syllabus

#### Course Description

Physics is a science course for students interested in the technical fields. This course is designed for the student who needs a broad understanding of physics and the ability to apply those principles in the work force.

#### OBJECTIVES:

• To understand the behavior of a particle quantum mechanically
• Understand the concept of conducting material
• To be able to distinguish pure and impure semi conductor
• To understand various magnetic and study super conductor behavior of material
• To understand various die-electric properties of Materials
• Understand the concept of Shock wave and nanoscience
###### UNIT I - MODERN PHYSICS AND QUANTUM MECHANICS

Modern physics and quantum mechanics - Black body radiation spectrum, Laws for explaining the energy distribution, Planck’s black body radiation law, Planck's radiation law. Particle of waves - Wave Particle dualism, De Broglie hypothesis, Compton Effect, Matter waves - Waves and particles, Properties of matter waves. Phase velocity and group velocity - Phase velocity and group velocity, Relation between group velocity and particle velocity, Relation between phase velocity and group velocity. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle - Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Application of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Non-existence of Free Electron in the Nucleus, Wave function, Properties of wave function, Probability density and normalization of wave function. Wave function - Physical significance of wave function, Basic postulates of wave mechanics. Schrodinger wave equation - Schrodinger wave equation, Schrodinger Time independent wave equation, Schrodinger Time dependent wave equation, Eigen values and Eigen functions, Particle in one dimensional box. Problems - Problem for finding the momentum of photon, Problem for finding DeBroglie wavelength of the electron, Problem for calculating the wavelength of scattered radiation, Problem for finding the wavelength of the scattered beam, Problem for finding the wavelength of the primary X-rays, Problem for finding the mass of the particle, Problem for finding the kinetic energy, phase velocity and group velocity of the de Broglie wave, Problem for determining the position of the electron, Problem for finding the energy of the electron in a one-dimensional infinite potential well, Problem for finding the uncertainty in the momentum of the electron located, Problem for calculating the first three permitted energy levels of an electron.

###### UNIT II – CONDUCTING MATERIALS

Crystallography - Introduction, Crystal structure, Unit cell, Lattice parameters, Bravais Lattice, Crystal systems. Space Lattice - Space Lattice, Simple Cubic and its packing factor, Body Center Cubic structure (BCC)and its packing factor, Face Center Cubic structure (FCC)and its packing factor, Problems. Other cubic structure - Diamond Cubic structure, NaCl Cubic structure. Crystal fundamentals - Direction and planes in crystals, Miller Indices, Interplaner spacing in cubic crystal. X-ray diffraction - Bragg's Law, X-ray diffraction, X-ray diffraction Method, Laue and powder methods. Defects in solids - Introduction to defect, Point defect, Line defect(qualitative), Screw and edge dislocation, Burgers vector. Ultrasonics - Introduction to ultrasonic, Production of ultrasonics by piezo electric method, Properties of ultrasonic. Detection of ultrasonic - Detection of ultrasonic, Thermal method, Piezoelectric method. Applications in non destructive testing - Applications in non destructive testing. Problems - Problem to find the lattice constant in a crystal, Problem for finding the cube edge value of unit cell, Problem for finding the miller indices of a plan, Problem for finding the lattice constant in fcc structure.

###### UNIT III - QUANTUM MECHANICS AND FREE ELECTRON THEORY

Quantum Mechanics - Introduction to matter waves, Properties of matter waves, De'Broglie hypothesis, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Application of heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Schrodinger's wave equation - Schrondinger's wave equation, Schrondinger's time independent wave equation, Schrondinger's time dependent wave equation, Significance of wave function, Particle in a one dimensional infinite potential well, Eigenvalues and Eigenfunction. Free electron theory - Classical Free Electron or Drude-Lorentztheory of Metals, Postulates of free electron theory, Free electron concept, Merits and demerits of classical free electron theory, Source of electrical resistance, Equation for electrical conductivity, Quantum free electron theory. Fermi-Dirac distribution - Fermi-Dirac energy distribution law, Fermi-Dirac statistical count, Fermi-Dirac energy function. Electron in a peoridic potential - Bloch theorem, Kronig-Penny model(qualitative), Origin of energy bands in solids. Classification of material - Classification of solids into Conductor, semiconductor, insulator. Problems - Problem for finding the momentum of photon, Problem for finding deBroglie wavelength of the electron, Problem for calculating the wavelength of scattered radiation, Problem for finding the wavelength of the scattered beam, Problem for finding the wavelength of the primary X-rays, Problem for finding the mass of the particle, Problem for finding the kinetic energy, phase velocity and group velocity of the de broglie wave, Problem for determining the position of the electron, Problem for finding the energy of the electron in a one-dimensional infinite potential well, Problem for finding the uncertainty in the momentum of the electron located, Problem for calculating the first three permitted energy levels of an electron.

###### UNIT IV - SEMICONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Semiconductor Physics- Introduction to semiconductor physics, Classification of Semiconductors, Intrinsic semiconductor, Extrinsic semiconductor. Intrinsic semiconductor - Intrinsic semiconductor, Fermi Level in Intrinsic Semiconductors, Carrier concentration in intrinsic semiconductor, Band gap determination. Extrinsic semiconductor - Fermi Level, Carrier concentration, Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors, Drift and diffusion currents and Einstein's equation. Hall effect - Introduction, Determination of hall coefficient, Experiment of hall effect, Application. P-N junction diode - Diode equation, V-I characteristics of P-N junction diode, Application of P-N junction diode. Working principle of P-N junction diode - Biasing of PN junction diode, Forward biasing of PN junction diode, Effect on the depletion region and barier potential, Reverse biasing of PN junction diode, Breakdown in reverse biased, Comparison of breakdown mechanism. Light Emitting Diode (LED)- Introduction to Light Emitting Diode(LED), LED materials, Construction of LED, Basic operation of LED, Advantages and Disadvantages of LED, Application of LED. Laser diode - Semiconductor Diode Laser, Homojunction Laser, Heterojunction Laser, Applications. Photodiode - Introduction to photodiodes, Working and characteristics of photodiode, Advantages and disadvantages of photodiodes, Applications of photodiodes. Magnetic materials - Introduction to magnetic material, Basic definitions. Magnetic moment - Origin of magnetic moment, Bohr magneton Hysteresis. Soft and hard magnetic materials and applications - Soft magnetic material, Hard magnetic material, Difference between hard and soft magnetic material, Anti ferromagnetic material, Applications of ferrites.

###### UNIT V - EM WAVES AND DIELECTRICS

Physical significance – Introduction, Gradient of a scalar, Curl of a vector, Divergence of a vector. Relationship between electric and potential field, Maxwell’s equation - Relationship between the electric field (E) and electric potential (V), Displacement current, Maxwell’s equations. Electromagnetic waves - Electromagnetic waves in free space and their velocity, Poynting Vector, Electromagnetic Spectrum. Dielectric Polarization - Introduction to Dielectric Material, Fundamental definition, Effect of temperature on dielectric constant. Various Polarization - Introduction to various polarization, Electronic polarization, Ionic polarization, Orientational polarization, Space-charge polarization, Frequency and temperature dependence of polarization, Internal fields in solids, Clausius - Mosotti relation (derivation), Dielectric loss. Dielectric Breakdown - Introduction to Dielectric breakdown, Qualities of good insulating materials, Ferro electricity and Applications.

###### UNIT VI - SHOCK WAVES AND SCIENCE OF NANO MATERIALS

Shock waves and science of nano materials - Mach number, Distinctions between various waves. Shock wave - Applications of shock wave, Basics of conversation of mass, momentum, energy. Rankine-Hugonit equations - Rankine-Hugonit equations. Creating shock waves - Creating shock waves Using a shock tube, Hand operated Reddy shock tube, Characteristics of shock tube. Nano science – Introduction, Nanotechnology, What is nano-material?, Density of states. Synthesis - Top–down and Bottom–up approach, Ball Milling method, Sol–Gel process. Carbon nanotubes - Carbon nanotubes, Properties of CNT's. Synthesis - Arc method, Pyrolysis methods, Applications of CNT's. Scanning Electron microscope - Scanning Electron microscope (SEM).