# Engineering Physics - I

Product: Theory Subject
Categories: Engineering
Department: Common Subjects

#### Features Includes:

• 240 - 3D/2D Animation
• 850 Pages of Content
• 60 Lecture Hours
• 42 Solved Problems
• 80 Quiz
• Suitable for All Technical University Syllabus

#### Course Description

Engineering Physics course is about the engineering skills and the specialization in the study of physics and its applications. The course is a combination of the theoretical concepts and application of the theory part of the concepts of physics.

#### OBJECTIVES:

• To explore the nuclear power as a reliable source required to run industries.
• Identify and describe the particles that make up a solid, liquid, and gas.
• Tap the simple harmoni motion and its adaptability for improved acoustic quality of concert halls.
• Impart concepts of optical interference, Diffraction and Polarization required to design instruments with higher resolution
• Concepts of coherent sources, its realization and utility optical instrumentation.
• An understanding of fiber optic theory and operation, including past, present and future applications as well as its advantages and disadvantages.
###### UNIT I - PHYSICAL OPTICS FOR INSTRUMENTS

Interference - Introduction to Interference, Interference in thin films by reflection. Newton's Ring Experiment - Newton's Ring Experiment, Refractive index of liquid interference filters. Diffraction - Fresnel diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction due to single slit, Fraunhofer diffraction due to double slit, Diffraction Grating. Grating equation - Grating equation, Measurement of wave length. Rayleigh's method - Rayleigh's criterion for resolution of grating, Resolving power of grating, Dispersive power of grating. Dielectric polarization - Introduction to Dielectric Material, Fundamental definition, Effect of temperature on dielectric constant, Dielectric polarization. Types Polarization - Introduction to various polarization, Ionic polarization, Orientational polarization, Space-charge polarization, Frequency and temperature dependence of polarization, Internal fields in solids, Clausius - Mosotti relation (derivation), Dielectric loss. Double refraction - Double refraction -Construction and working, Nicol's Prism, Quarter wave plate and Half wave plate.

###### UNIT II - COHERENT OPTICS – COMMUNICATIONS AND STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS

LASER - Introduction of LASER, Principles of LASER, Population inversion. Properties of LASER - Monochromaticity and Directionality, Coherence and Intensity. Einstein’s coefficients - Einstein’s coefficients, Upward and downward transition. Working Principle of LASER - Working Principle of LASER, Optical resonant cavity. Pumping Mechanisms - Pumping Mechanisms, Optical Pumping, Electrical Pumping, Other Methods of Pumping. Ruby and Helium Neon LASER - Ruby LASER, Construction and Working of Ruby LASER, Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages of Ruby LASER, Helium Neon LASER. Fibre optics - Optic fibre, Principle of fibre optics, Propagation mechanism, Example problems. Acceptance angle and numerical aperture - Angle of acceptance, Numerical aperture. Crystallography - Introduction, Crystal strucutre, Unit cell, Lattice parameters, Bravais Lattice, Crystal systems. Space Lattice - Space Lattice, Simple Cubic and its packing factor, Body Center Cubic structure (BCC)and its packing factor, Face Center Cubic structure (FCC)and its packing factor, Example problems. Crystal fundamentals - Direction and planes in crystals, Miller Indices, Interplaner spacing in cubic crystal. X-ray diffraction - Bragg's Law, X-ray diffraction, X-ray diffraction Method, Laue and powder methods.

###### UNIT III - MAGNETIC, ELECTRIC FIELD RESPONSE OF MATERIALS AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

Magnetic property - Permeability, Field intensity, Magnetic field induction, Magnetization. Magnetic moment - Origin of magnetic moment, Bohr magneton. Classification of magnetic materials – Types of Magnetism, Diamagnetic material, Paramagnetic material, Ferro magnetic material, Classification of dia, para and ferro magnetic materials. Ferrites - Structure of ferrites, Preparation of ferrites, Applications of ferrites. Hysteresis - Hysteresis. Dielectric Polarization - Introduction to Dielectric Material, Fundamental definition, Effect of temperature on dielectric constant. Types of Polarization - Introduction to various polarization, Electronic polarization, Ionic polarization, Orientational polarization, Space-charge polarization, Frequency and temperature dependence of polarization, Internal fields in solids, Clausius-Mosotti relation (derivation), Dielectric loss. Dielectric Breakdown - Introduction to Dielectric breakdown, Qualities of good insulating materials, Ferroelectricity and Applications. Superconductivity - Introduction, Superconducting phenomena, Meissner effect, Properties of superconductors. Types of superconductors - Types I superconductors, Types II superconductors, BCS theory(qualitative), High Temperature superconductors. Flux quantization - Flux quantization, London penetration depth, AC and DC Josephson effects. Applications of superconductors - Applications of superconductors, SQUID, Cryotron, Magnetic levitation.

###### UNIT IV - ACOUSTICS AND EM – FIELDS

Acoustics - Introduction to sound, Intensity level and decibel, Example problems. Sabine's formula - Growth of sound intensity in a room, Decay of sound intensity inside the room (Continue). Absorption coefficient - Absorption coefficient, Measurement of Absorption coefficient. Factors affecting acoustics of buildings - Introduction, Reverberation, Loudness, Focusing due to walls and ceilings, Echoes, Echelon effect, Resonance effect, Noises from the exterior. Electric Flux - Electric Flux, Properties of Flux lines, Electric Flux density, Vector Form of Electric Flux Density, Differential surface area due to a point charge, Electric Flux density for various charge distributions, Problems on various charge distributions. Gauss’s law - Gauss’s law, Mathematical Representation of Gauss's Law, Special Gaussian Surfaces, Applications of Gauss's Law, To find electric flux density and electric field intensity using gauss’s law. Stoke’s Theorem - Stoke’s Theorem, Problems. Definitions of magnetism - Magnetic Flux, Definitions concerning magnetic circuit. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Introduction, Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, Problems. Lenz's law and Fleming's law - Direction of induced e.m.f. and current. Maxwell's equations - Introduction, Maxwell's equations for static fields.

###### UNIT V - QUANTUM MECHANICS FOR ELECTRONIC TRANSPORT

Quantum Mechanics - Introduction to matter waves, Properties of matter waves, De'Broglie hypothesis, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Application of heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Schrodinger's wave equation - Schrondinger's wave equation, Schrondinger's time independent wave equation, Schrondinger's time dependent wave equation, Significance of wave function, Particle in a one dimensional infinite potential well, Eigenvalues and Eigen function. Free electron theory - Classical Free Electron or Drude-Lorentztheory of Metals, Postulates of free electron theory, Free electron concept, Merits and demerits of classical free electron theory, Source of electrical resistance, Equation for electrical conductivity, Quantum free electron theory. Fermi-Dirac distribution - Fermi-Dirac energy distribution law, Fermi-Dirac statistical count, Fermi-Dirac energy function, Fermi Dirac Statistics, Fermi Factor, Fermi Energy, Fermi Temperature, Density of states, Expression for electrical Resistivity/conductivity. Electron in a periodic potential - Bloch theorem, Kronig-Penny model (qualitative), Origin of energy band formation in solids, E-K curve, Concept of effective mass of an Electron. Classification of material - Classification of materials into conductors, semi conductors and insulators.

###### UNIT VI - SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS

Semiconductor Physics - Introduction to semiconductor physics, Classification of Semiconductors, Intrinsic semiconductor, Extrinsic semiconductor. Intrinsic semiconductor - Intrinsic semiconductor, Fermi Level in Intrinsic Semiconductors, Carrier concentration in intrinsic semiconductor, Band gap determination. Extrinsic semiconductor - Fermi Level, Carrier concentration, Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors, Drift and diffusion currents and Einstein's equation. Hall Effect - Introduction, Determination of hall coefficient, Experiment of Hall Effect, Application. Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Introduction to Light Emitting Diode (LED), LED materials, Construction of LED, Basic operation of LED, Advantages and Disadvantages of LED, Application of LED. Photo conductors and Solar cell - Introduction, Uses of photo conductivity, Introduction to photo voltaic cell (solar cell), Working and characteristics of photo voltaic cell, Advantages and applications of solar cells.