This course will provide adequate information about the Fundamentals of chemistry , solutions, acids and bases. It will impart knowledge to principles of metallurgy. To acquaint the student with concepts of electrochemistry , corrosion, fules and environmental studies.
Fundamental particles of an atom - What is an Atom? - The fundamental particles - Atomic number(Z) and mass number(A) - Atomic structure. Quantum Numbers - Quantum Number - Principle quantum number(n) - Azimuthal quantum number(l) - Magnetic quantum number(m) - Spin quantum number(s) - Permitted values of quantum numbers. Fundamental rules for electronic configuration - Fundamental rules for electronic configuration - Orbit and orbital - The electronic configuration of elements up to atomic number 30. Chemical bonding - Chemical bonding - Types of bonds. Ionic bonding or electrovalent bonding - Ionic bond or electrovalent bond - Characteristics of ionic compounds. Covalent bonding Coordinate or dative covalent bonding - Covalent Bonding - Lewis dot model or Electron dot model - Characteristics of covalent compounds - Structures of ionic solids - Structures of unit cells of NaCl and CsCl - Types of covalent bond - Coordinate covalent or dative covalent bonding. Metallic bond with electron sea model theory - Properties of metals - Metallic bond with electron sea model. Oxidation, reduction and oxidation number - Oxidation and reduction - Oxidising agent and reducing agent - Oxidation number and its calculations - Difference between oxidation state and valency.
Solution and classify solutions based on physical state and solubility–Types of mixtures - Solution - Types of solutions - Solubility. Mole concept - Mole concept – Problems. Atomic weight, Molecular weight, Equivalent weight - Atomic weight, Molecular weight, Equivalent weight - Equivalent weight of acids - Equivalent weight of bases - Equivalent weight of salts. Molarityand molality- Methods of expressing the concentration of a solution – Molarity - Calculation of molarity - Other relationships involving molarity - Calculation of weight of solute - Dilution law - Principle for neutralisation reactions. Normality – Normality - Problems on normality - Calculation of weight of solute - Principle of neutralization reactions - Dilution law - Relation between molarity and normality. Numerical problems on mole, molarity and normality - Numerical problems on mole - Numerical problems on molarity - Numerical problems on normality.
Introduction to acids – Acids - Strength of acids. Bases and Arrhenius concept – Bases - Classification of bases - Arrhenius concept and neutralization. Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis theory of acids and bases - Bronsted – Lowry concept - Strength of acid and base - Lewis theory - Ionic product of water (Kw). pH scale and numerical problems on pH - pH and Sorenson scale - Problems on pH - pH concept. Buffer solutions - Buffer solutions - Types of buffers - Characteristics and applications of buffer solutions.
Characteristics of metals – Metallurgy – Metals - Characteristics of metals - Distinction between metals and non – metals. Occurrence of metals and terms related to metallurgy - Mineral and Ore - Gangue (Matrix) – Flux – Slag. Methods of concentration of ore - Extraction of metal from ore - Concentration of Ore (Ore dressing). Methods involved in extraction of crude metal - Extracting of crude metal – Smelting. Purification of metals by electro refining and alloys - Purification of metals – Alloys.
Introduction to Electrochemistry- What is Electrochemistry? - Types of Conductors - Types of Electrolytes. Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation - Nature of electrolytes - Arrhenius Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation. Electrolysis by taking example fused NaCl – Electrolytes – Electrolysis - Electrolytic cell - Electrolysis of fused(molten) NaCl. Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Faraday's laws - Faraday's first law of electrolysis - Faraday's second law of electrolysis - Relationship between chemical equivalent and electro chemical equivalent. Numerical problems based on faraday's laws of electrolysis - Problem 1 - Problem 2 - Problem 3 - Problem 4 - Problem 5 - Problem 6 - Problem 7. Galvanic cell - Differences between Electrolytic cell and Galvanic Cell - Representation of Galvanic cell or Cell notation - Anode half-cell and cathode half-cell - Salt bridge representation. Standard electrode potential - Oxidation and Reduction - Standard electrode potential. Electrochemical series and its significance - Electrochemical series - Applications of Electrochemical series. EMF of a cell and its problems - Electromotive Force - Calculation of EMF of cell - Calculate EMF of galvanic cell - Problems on EMF of cell.
Corrosion - Introduction to corrosion - Causes of corrosion. Factors influencing the rate of corrosion - Factors influencing the rate of corrosion - Nature of environment. Electrochemical theory of corrosion - Electrochemical theory of corrosion - Electrochemical corrosion - Hydrogen evolution type corrosion - Adsorption oxygen (or) hydroxide ion type corrosion. Types of electrochemical cells - Types of electrochemical cells - Galvanic cell (Composition cell) - Concentration cell - Stress cell. Rusting of iron - Rusting of iron - Mechanism of rusting iron. Protective coating - Protective coating - Metallic coatings - Differences between anodic coating and cathodic coating - Inorganic coatings - Organic coatings - Types of organic coating. Cathodic protection - Definition of cathodic protection - Sacrificial anodic method - Advantages of sacrificial anodic protection method - Impressed current cathodic protection method (or) impressed voltage process - Corrosion control.
Soft water and hard water –Water - Nature of water - Differences between Hard Water and Soft Water. Various types of hardness of water - Types of hardness - Disadvantages of hard water. Degree of hardness and its units - Units of hardness - Calculation of CaCO3 equivalents(Degree of hardness). Methods of softening of hard water - Softening methods of hard water - Ion-Exchange resin (or) deionization (or) demineralization process. Osmosis and reverse osmosis - Osmosis and reverse osmosis - Advantages of reverse osmosis. Municipal treatment of water and essential qualities of drinking water - Method of municipal water treatment - Essential qualities of drinking water.
Polymerisation and its types-Polymers and types of polymers - Polymerisation and its types - Addition polymerisation. Condensation polymerisation - Condensation polymerisation - Comparison between addition and condensation polymerisation. Plastics - Plastics and its classification - Comparison of thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. Properties of plastics - Properties of plastics - Advantages and disadvantages of plastics. Preparation and uses of polyethylene and PVC - Preparation and uses of polyethylene - Preparation and uses of polyvinyl chloride. Preparation and uses of polystyrene, urea formaldehyde, Teflon - Preparation and uses of polystyrene - Preparation and uses of urea formaldehyde - Preparation and uses of Teflon. Natural rubber - Rubber and its types - Sources and structure of rubber. Processing of natural rubber from latex - Processing of natural rubber from latex - Flow chart of isolation of natural rubber from latex - Characteristics of natural rubber - Draw backs of natural rubber. Process of vulcanization - Vulcanization and its process - Effect of vulcanization on rubber molecules - Properties of vulcanized rubber. Characteristics of vulcanized rubber - Characteristics of natural and vulcanized rubber - Comparison of raw rubber with vulcanized rubber. Elastomer and preparation and uses of Buna-s rubber - Elastomers and its types - Preparation of Buna-S rubber - Properties and Uses of Buna-S rubber. Preparation and uses of Neoprene and Butyl rubber - Preparation of neoprene rubber - Uses of neoprene rubber - Preparation and uses of Butyl rubber.
Fuel and characteristics of good fuel - Introduction to fuels - Terms related to fuels - Definition of fuels - Classification of fuels - Energy consumption of fuel - Characteristics of good fuel. Gaseous fuels - Gaseous fuels - Natural gas - Uses of natural gas - Producer gas - Uses of producer gas. Composition and uses of Water gas and coal gas - Water gas - Uses of water gas - Coal gas - Uses of Coal gas. Composition and uses of Bio gas and acetylene gas - Bio gas - Composition of bio gas - Benefits of bio gas - Acetylene gas - Uses of Acetylene gas.
Introduction to environmental studies – Introduction - Environmental studies - Types of environment - Scope and importance of environmental studies. Segments of environment and the terms related to environment - Segments of environment - Terms related to environment. Renewable and Non-Renewable energy resources - Energy resources - Classification of energy resources - Renewable energy resources - Solar energy - Wind energy - Ocean energy - Geothermal Energy - Bio Mass energy - Non-Renewable energy sources - Nuclear Energy. Ecosystem – Ecosystem. Producer, consumer and decomposer - Producer, consumer and decomposer. Biodiversity – Biodiversity - Value of biodiversity - Threats to biodiversity. Air pollution - Air pollution - Sources of air pollution. Classification of air pollutant - Classification of air pollutant. Causes of air pollution - Causes of air pollution. Effects of air pollution on human beings, animals and plants - Effects of air pollution on human beings, animals and plants - Effects of air pollution on animals - Effects of air pollution on other materials. Forest resources - Forest resources - Uses of forests - Over exploitation of forest resources – Deforestation - Effects of deforestation. Greenhouse effect - Greenhouse effect - Global warming - Ozone layer depletion - Acid rain. Methods of control of air pollution - Methods of control of air pollution. Causes of water pollution - Causes of water pollution. Effects of water pollution on living organisms - Effects of water pollution on living organisms. Methods of control of water pollution - Methods of control of water pollution.