Engineering Chemistry - II

Product: Theory Subject
Categories: Engineering
Department: Common Subjects

Features Includes:

  • 220 - 3D/2D Animation
  • 1250 Pages of Content
  • 60 Lecture Hours
  • 30 Solved Problems
  • 85 Quiz
  • Suitable for All Technical University Syllabus

Course Description

The engineering chemistry course for undergraduate students is framed to strengthen the fundamentals of chemistry and then build an interface of theoretical concepts with their industrial engineering applications. After the completion of the course, the student would understand about the concepts of chemistry in respect of solid chemistry, surface chemistry and catalysis, nano chemistry , thermodynamics and equilibrium and energy sources.


  • To develop an intuitive understanding of solid state chemistry
  • To familiarize the student with supercondutivity and nanomaterials and their properties and applications
  • To understand the basic concepts of phase rule and its applications and acquire knowledge on purpose and significance of alloys
  • The students will be conversant with hands - on knowledge in the surface chemistry.
  • To acquaint the students with the concepts of important photophysical and photochemical processes and spectroscopy
  • To apply the knowledge in understanding the basic concepts of energy sources
  • To impart knowledge of thermodynamic laws and chemical equilibrium
UNIT I – Solid State Chemistry

Crystallography - Introduction - Crystal structure - Unit cell - Lattice parameters - Bravais Lattice - Crystal systems. Space Lattice - Space Lattice - Simple Cubic and its packing factor - Body Center Cubic structure (BCC)and its packing factor - Face Center Cubic structure (FCC)and its packing factor - Problem 1 - Problem 2. Crystal fundamentals - Fundamental laws of crystal structure - Direction and planes in crystals - Miller Indices - Interplaner spacing in cubic crystal. X-ray diffraction - Bragg's Law - X-ray diffraction - X-ray diffraction Method - Laue and powder methods. Imperfections in crystals - Introduction to Defect - Classification of crystal imperfections - Crystal imperfections - Point Defect - Vacancy - Substitutional Impurity - Interstitial Impurity - Line Defect (Qualitative) - Screw and Edge dislocation. Structure of raw salt - Structure of rock salt - Structure of CsCl. Semiconductor - Semiconductor - Elemental semiconductor - Non-elemental semiconducting materials - Organic semiconductors - Controlled valency semiconductors - Doping - Applications of semiconductors. Preparation of semiconductors - Preparation of semiconductors - Doping techniques. Preparation of semiconductors - Preparation of semiconductors - Junction Transistor. Molecular orbital theory and its applications to homo nuclear diatomic molecules - Introduction to molecular orbit - Molecular Orbitals - Bonding and Antibonding orbitals - Graphite - Graphite classifications - Properties of graphite - Applications. Hall effect - Introduction - Determination of hall coefficient - Experiment of hall effect - Application.


Superconductivity - Superconductivity. Superconductor - Introduction - Superconductor - Properties of superconductor - Applications of superconductors - Squid - Cryotron - Magnetic levitation. Preparation of superconductor - Preparation of superconductor - Properties of superconductors - Applications of superconducting materials. Liquid crystal - Introduction to liquid crystal polymers - Classification of liquid crystals - Properties and uses of liquid crystals. Storage of data on floppy disc - Floppy disk - Components of floppy - Floppy disk drive - Working of floppy - Introduction to CD - Components of CD - Working of CD. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) - Introduction to LCD - LCD crystal types - LCD operation - Applications of LCD - Advantages and Disadvantages of LCD. Introduction to nanochemistry - Introduction to nanochemistry - Nanoscience - Distinction between molecules, nanoparticles - Size-dependent properties - Application of nanomaterial - Material self-assembly - Nano Dynamics - Molecular Vs material self assembly. Self-assembling materials - Self assembling materials - Self Assembled Monolayers (SAM) - Types of SAMs - Preparation and Applications of SAMs - Two dimensional assemblies - Mesoscale self-assembly (Mesa). Synthesis of nano particle - Synthesis of nano particle - Role of Bottom- up and Top-Down approaches in Nano technology - Sol gel method - Chemical reduction method - Chemical vapour deposition. Characterization of nanomaterials and understanding their properties - Characterization of nanomaterials and understanding their properties - BET (Surface area analysis) - Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon nano tubes and fullerenes - Carbon nano tubes - Preparation of carbon nano tube - Pulsed laser deposition - Chemical vapour deposition - Hydrocarbon flame synthesis - Properties of carbon nano tubes - Applications of CNTs - Fullerenes - Preparation of fullerenes - Properties of fullerenes - Applications of fullerenes. Coercing colloids and Nanocrystals - Coercing colloids - Nanocrystals/Nanoparticles - Properties of Nanoparticles - Production of nanoparticles by Synthesis. Supramolecular structures and future perspectives - Supramolecular systems - Nanoscale materials - Dendrimers - Future perspective.


Alloy - Introduction to alloy - Effect of alloying elements - Nichrome and stainless steel (18/8) - Introduction - Brass - Bronze. Heat treatment of steel - Heat treatment of steel - Annealing - Hardening and tempering - Normalising and case hardening - Flame hardening and gas carburizing - Nitriding and cyaniding. Phase rule - Introduction to phase rule - Merits and limitations of phase rule - Derivation of phase rule. One component system - One component system - Water system - Sulphur system - Reduced phase rule. Two component system - Introduction to two component system. Lead –Silver system – Pattinson process - Lead silver system - Pattinson’s process - Copper nickel alloy system - Zinc magnesium alloy system. Thermal Analysis and Cooling curves - Thermal Analysis and Cooling curves - Eutectic system - Cooling curves of pure metals - Allotropic forms and cooling curve of Pure Iron - Critical Points. Iron – Carbon phase diagram - Micro-Constituents of Iron and Carbon Alloy - Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram - Important Points in Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram. Steel - Steel - Calculating Percentages of Phases - Transformation of Eutectoid Steel.


Surface chemistry - Introduction to surface chemistry - Absorption and sorption - Characteristics of adsorption - Adsorption of gases on solids - Nature of the adsorbate and adsorbent. Types of adsorption - Types of adsorption - Difference between physisorption and chemisorption - Applications of adsorption. Adsorption isotherms - Adsorption isotherm - Types of adsorption isotherms - The Freundlich adsorption isotherm - Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Contact Theory - Mechanism of catalytic action - Adsorption (or) contact theory - Advantages of contact (or) adsorption theory - Role of adsorbents in pollution abatement treatment of polluted water and air. Introduction to catalysis - Catalyst and catalysis - Types of catalysis - Autocatalysis - Characteristics of a catalyst - Size and activity of a catalyst - Catalytic Promoters - Catalytic Poisons - Acid base catalysis. Industrial using catalysts - Important industrial processes using catalysts - Choosing a good catalyst for industrial processes - Enzymes (or) biological catalysts - Kinetics of enzyme catalysed reaction or michaelis and menten equation. Introduction to colloids - Introduction to colloids - Classification of solutions - Differences between true solutions and colloidal solutions. Types of colloids - Types of colloidal solution - Difference between Lyophilic sols and Lyophobic sols. Properties of colloidal solution - Properties of colloidal solution - Optical properties or Tyndall effect - Electrical properties - Mechanical properties. Micelles - Micelles - Difference between micelles and colloidal solution. Application of colloids - Application of colloids in everyday life - Application in analytical chemistry - Application of colloids in medicine - Application of colloids in industry. Fermentation - Fermentation - Conditions favourable for fermentation - Manufacture of ethyl alcohol by fermentation - Preparation of ethyl alcohol from starch- Manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation - Manufacturing of acetone and lactic acid. Viscosity - Introduction to viscosity - Viscosity - Factors influencing the viscosity - Dynamic and kinematic viscosity - Determination of molecular weight of a compound - Ostwald's viscometer - Application to fluids in motion. Types of flow - Reynolds’ experiment - Laminar and turbulent flow - Reynolds' number - Significance of Reynolds number.


Introduction to photochemistry - Introduction - Classification of photochemical reactions - Characteristics of photochemical reactions - Internal conversion and Intersystem crossing - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Differences between Fluorescence and Phosphorescence - Chemiluminescence - Photosensitisation - Application of photosensitisation in photography. Laws of photochemistry - Laws of photochemistry - Stark-Einstein law - Beer - Lambertz law. Quantum efficiency - Measurement of absorbed intensity - Colorimetric analysis - Quantum yield efficiency - Reasons for quantum yield - Photochemical equilibrium - Photochemical synthesis of hydrogen chloride - Photochemical synthesis of hydrogen bromide - Molecular excitation and Jablonski diagram. Semiconductor photochemistry - Semiconductor - Elemental semiconductor - Non-elemental semiconducting materials - COrganic semiconductors - Controlled valency semiconductors - Applications of semiconductors - Silicon molecular structure - Doping - Doping of silicon for photo voltaic cells - Doping with phosphorous n-type silicon semiconductors - Doping with boron p-type silicon semiconductors. Photovoltaic cell and Optical sensors - Introduction of photo voltaic cell (Solar cell) - Working and characteristics of photo voltaic cells - Advantages and applications of solar cells - Optical sensors - Supra-molecular photochemistry - Features and Applications of supramolecular photochemistry. Introduction to sensor - Sensor - Types of sensor - Smoke detectors - Photoelectric detectors. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy - Types of energy present in molecules - Types of spectra - General features of absorption spectrometer. 5.8 UV/Visible spectroscopy - UV/Visible spectroscopy - Selection rule - Intensity and width of spectral line - Principle of UV spectroscopy - Instrumentation of UV spectrometer - Electronic transitions - Chromophores and auxochromes - Ultraviolet (UV) and Visible (VIS) spectra - Characteristics of UV and visible spectra - Components of visible UV spectrometer - Application of UV visible spectrometer. IR spectroscopy - IR spectroscopy - Principle - Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy - Vibrational frequency - Fundamental modes of vibrations and types - Anharmonics - IR spectra of polyatomic molecules - Types of stretching - IR spectrophotometer - Factors influencing vibrational frequencies - Applications of IR spectroscopy. NMR spectrometer - NMR spectrometer - Principle of NMR spectroscopy - Instrumentation - Chemical shift - Measurement of chemical shift - Cause of chemical shift - Splitting - Applications of NMR spectroscopy - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - High resolution NMR spectrum - Spin-spin coupling constant (J).


Introduction to nuclear energy - Introduction to nuclear energy - Nuclear fuel - Binding energy. Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion - Nuclear fission - Nuclear fusion - Differences between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion - Nuclear chain reactions. Nuclear reactor power generator - Nuclear power plant - Nuclear energy production - Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy - Light water nuclear reactor and Breeder reactor. Disposal of nuclear wastes - Disposal of nuclear wastes. Solar energy - Solar energy - Physical principles of conservation of solar radiation into heat - Application of solar energy. Various methods of solar power generation - Various methods of solar power generation - Harnessing of solar energy - Solar reflection - Reflectivity of translucent materials. Solar cells - Introduction to solar cells - Solar power plant - Introduction of photo voltaic cell (Solar cell) - Working and characteristics of photo voltaic cell - Advantages and applications of solar cells - Solar battery. Wind energy - Technology and application - Wind Energy - Basic principles of wind energy conversions - Basic components of a WECS (wind energy conversion system) - Rotor - Wind Energy Collectors - Advantages and disadvantages - Applications of wind mill.


Terminology of thermodynamics - Terminology of thermodynamics, Thermodynamic properties, Thermodynamic work and heat, Steady state, Thermodynamic equilibrium, States and properties - Thermodynamic state and properties, State and path functions, Second law of thermodynamics - Second law of thermodynamics, Clausius statement, Kelvin-Planck statement, Concept of entropy - Entropy, Characteristics of entropy, Units and physical significance of entropy, Entropy changes and Clausius inequality - Entropy change for an ideal gas, Entropy change in reversible and irreversible process, Entropy of phase transition, Clausius inequality, Free energy and work function - Work function, Gibbs free energy, Helmoltz and Gibbs free energy functions - Helmoltz and Gibbs free energy functions, Criteria of spontaneity, Gibbs Helmholtz equation, roblem based on Gibbs - Helmholtz equation, Clapeyron and Maxwell’s equation - Clapeyron equation, Clausius – Clapeyron equation, Maxwell’s equations, Vant Hoff’s equation - Vant Hoff’s equation for isotherm, Vant Hoff’s equation for isochore, Problem based on Vant Hoff's isotherm.