This subject course deals with the operation and application of several semiconductor devices such as diodes, power devices and display devices. It gains knowledge about various rectifier circuits with filter and IC regulators. It also deals with PCB and its fabrication process.
Zener diode - Introduction to Zener diode, Zener breakdown, Avalanche breakdown, Differences between Zener and Avalanche break downs. Zener diode characteristics - V-I Characteristics of Zener diode, Specifications of Zener Diode, Application of Zener Diode. Schottky barrier diode – Construction, Operation and Characteristics, Applications, Comparison between Schottky and conventional diode. Tunnel diode - Introduction to tunnel diode, Tunnel diode construction, Principle of tunnel diode, Equivalent circuit of the tunnel diode, Comparison of tunnel diode and conventional diode. Varactor diode - Varactor diode, Working principle of varactor diode, Doping profile in varactor diode, Applications of Varactor diodes. PIN diode – Introduction, PIN diode construction, PIN diode characteristics, Applications of PIN diode, Comparison of PIN diode and p-n junction general purpose diode. Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Introduction of Light Emitting Diode (LED), Construction of LED, Basic operation of LED, Advantages and Disadvantages of LED, Applications of LED. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) - Introduction to LCD, LCD crystal types, LCD operation, Applications of LCD, Advantages and Disadvantages of LCD. Thyristors - Types of thyristor family devices, ISI circuit symbol for power semiconductor devices. Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) - Silicon controlled rectifier, Power control using SCR, Operation of SCR, Characteristics of SCR, DC power control using SCR, Applications of SCR. DIAC and TRIAC - DIAC (Diode A.C. Switch), TRIAC (Triode for Alternating Current). Unijunction Transistor (UJT) - Unipolar Junction Transistor (UJT), Equivalent circuit of UJT, Working of UJT. Characteristics of UJT - UJT Relaxation Oscillator, Features of UJT, Applications of UJT. Photodiode - Introduction of photodiode, Working and characteristics of photodiode, Advantages and disadvantages of photodiode, Applications of photodiode. Phototransistor - Introduction of photo transistor, Operation and characteristics of photo transistor. Optocoupler – Optocoupler - Slotted optocoupler. LASER diode - Introduction to laser diode, Operation of laser diode, Characteristics of laser diode, Classification and applications. Solar cell - Introduction of photo voltaic cell, Working and characteristics of photo voltaic cell, Advantages and Applications of solar cells. MESFET - MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor), Depletion and enhancement type MESFET, Advantages and disadvantages of MESFET.
Power supply - Introduction to necessity of DC power supply, Introduction of power supply, Classification of power supply, Linear mode power supply, Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS). Rectifiers - PN junction diode as a rectifier, Need of rectifier, Classification of rectifiers. Halfwave rectifier - Halfwave rectifier, Halfwave rectifier parameters, Average DC load current and Average DC load voltage, R.M.S. value of load current and load voltage, DC power output and AC power input, Rectifier efficiency, Ripple factor and Load current, Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) and Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF), Voltage regulation, Advantages and disadvantages of HWR. Center tapped full wave rectifier - Full wave rectifier, Maximum load current, Average DC load current and voltage, RMS value, power input and power output, Rectifier efficiency, Ripple factor, Load current, Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV), Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF), Voltage regulation, Advantages and disadvantages of Full Wave Rectifier (FWR). Full wave bridge rectifier - Bridge Rectifier (BR), Expression for various parameters, Advantages and disadvantages of Bridge Rectifier (BR), Comparison of half wave, full wave and bridge rectifier, Harmonic components in a rectifier circuit. Solved problems for rectifier - Problem to calculate Ripple Factor, Problem to calculate Ripple Voltage, Problem to calculate Load Voltage, Problem to calculate Capacitance, Problem to calculate Ripple Voltage, Problem to calculate Peak Rectified Voltage, Problem to design a halfwave rectifier, Problem to design a fullwave rectifier. Inductor filter or choke filter - Filter, Inductor filter or (Choke filter), Ripple factor. Capacitor (c) Filter - Capacitor (C) filter, Ripple factor. LC Filter - LC Filter, Ripple factor, Advantages and Disadvantages of LC filters. CLC (PHI) Filter - CLC (PHI) Filter, Ripple factor, Advantages and Disadvantages of CLC filters. Comparison of filters - Comparison between capacitor input filter and LC filter. Voltage regulators - Introduction of voltage regulation, Types of voltage regulators, Zener diode shunt regulator, Stability factor for Zener voltage regulator, Advantages and disadvantages of Zener voltage regulator, Transistor shunt regulator, Emitter follower series voltage regulator.
Method of coupling multistage amplifier – Introduction, Two stage cascaded amplifier, N-stage cascaded amplifier, Selection of configuration for cascading, Methods of coupling multistage amplifier. Differential amplifier – Introduction, The emitter coupled differential amplifier, Types of differential amplifier, Analysis of differential amplifier, Methods of improving CMRR, Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier.FET input stages- FET input stages , JFET applications. Single tuned amplifier - Introduction of tuned amplifier, Classification of tuned amplifier, Small signal tuned amplifier, Example of small signal tuned amplifier, Single tuned capacitance coupled amplifier, Example of single tuned amplifier. Neutralization methods - Hazeltine neutralization, Neutrodyne neutralization, Neutralization using coil, Rice neutralization. Power amplifier - Features of large signal amplifier, Classification of power amplifiers, Class A power Amplifiers, Class B power Amplifiers, Class C Power Amplifier, Class AB Amplifier, Class D Amplifier. Applications of power amplifiers - Applications of power amplifiers, Different ICs used in power amplifiers.
Negative and positive feedback- Introduction to feedback, Positive and negative feedback, Advantages and disadvantages, Comparison of positive and negative feedback. Block diagram of negative feedback-Block diagram of negative feedback, General feedback structure. Properties of negative feedback - Properties of negative feedback, Gain Desensitivity, Bandwidth Extension, Noise Reduction ,Reduction in Nonlinear Distortion. The four basic feedback topologies - Basic feedback topologies, Voltage amplifiers, Current amplifiers, Transconductance amplifiers, Transresistance amplifiers. The Series-Shunt Feedback Amplifier - The Series-Shunt Feedback Amplifier, The ideal situation, The practical situation. The Series-Series feedback amplifier - The Series-Series feedback amplifier, The ideal case, The practical case. The shunt – shunt feedback amplifier - The shunt – shunt feedback amplifier, the ideal case, The practical case. The Shunt - series feedback amplifier - The Shunt - series feedback amplifier, the ideal situation, The practical situation. Oscillator -Introduction to Oscillator, Types of oscillators, Basic theory of oscillator, Comparison between amplifier and oscillator. Requisites and Classification of oscillators - Requisites of an oscillators, Classification of oscillators, Applications of oscillators. Barkhausen criterion - Barkhausen criterion. RC phase shift oscillator- RC phase shift oscillator, RC Oscillator, RC phase shift oscillator, RC feedback network, Condition for sustained oscillations, Transistorized RC Phase Shift Oscillator, Phase shift oscillator using Op-amp, FET phase oscillators, Advantages and disadvantages of RC phase shift oscillator. Wein bridge oscillator- Wein bridge oscillator, Advantages and disadvantages of wein bridge oscillator, Problem to determine the frequency of oscillations. Hartley oscillator - Hartley oscillator, Condition for sustained oscillations, Advantages and disadvantages of hartley oscillator. Colpitt’s oscillator - Colpitt’s oscillator, Condition for sustained oscillations, Advantages and disadvantages of colpitt's oscillator. Crystal oscillator - Crystal oscillator, A.C equivalent circuit of a crystal, Series and Parallel resonance, Crystal Stability
Need of PCB in electronic equipment – Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Classification of PCBs - Classification of PCB’s - Advantages of PCB. Types of Laminates used in PCB - Lamination Used in PCB - Types of Laminates. Methods of layout preparation of PCB - Methods of layout preparation of PCB. Methods of transferring layout on the copper clad sheet - Methods of transferring layout on the copper clad sheet. Screen printing for making PCBs and Materials used in screen printing - Screen printing for making PCBs - Materials used in screen printing. Photo processing techniques for PCB preparation - Manufacturing of PCB by photoresist printing. Etching, Cleaning and Drilling of PCB - Etching, cleaning and drilling of PCB. Manufacturing of double sided PCBs - Manufacturing of double sided PCBs - Multilayer PCB. Soldering materials - Surface Mount Technology (SMT) – Soldering - Principles of solder connections - Soldering Alloys - Soldering Fluxes. Soldering method of PCB - Soldering of PCB - PCB specifications.