This course covers the concept of basic electronic components, semiconductors diodes and analyze the operation, characteristics and functional aspects of transistor.
Introduction to Electronics – Electronics and its evolution – Impact of electronics. Resistor - Ohm's Law – Resistors - Property of resistance - Problem to find resistance - Classification of resistors - Specifications of resistors - Preferred values in resistors. Color coding of resistors - Resistors color coding - Finding the resistance value - Finding the color code from the given resistance value - Color coding for the resistor. Resistors connected in series and parallel - Resistors connected in series – Problems on resistors connected in series and parallel. Carbon and wire wound resistors - Carbon resistors - Wire wound resistors - Comparison of carbon film and wire wound resistors. Potentiometers - Tapering in the potentiometers - Carbon potentiometers - Wire wound potentiometers - Comparison of carbon and wire wound potentiometers. Rheostat and its applications – Rheostat - Differences between Potentiometer and Rheostat. Effect of temperature on resistance - Effect of temperature on resistance - Temperature coefficient of resistance – Problems. Thermistors and Sensistors – Thermistors – Sensistors. Capacitors - Introduction to capacitor - Charging and discharging of capacitor. Classification of capacitor - Fixed capacitors - Mica capacitors - Ceramic chip capacitor - Plastic film capacitor. Specifications of capacitor - Different specification of capacitor. Factors affecting the capacitance of a capacitor - Factors affecting the capacitance of a capacitor - The Dielectric constants of different materials. Dielectric constants and Dielectric strength - Dielectric constants - Dielectric constants of some materials - Dielectric strength - Dielectric strength of some materials. Different types of variable capacitors - Variable capacitors - Continuous variable type capacitors - Limited adjustment type - Application of variable capacitors. Inductors – Inductors – Self-inductance - Factor affecting value of inductance. Mutual inductance coefficient of coupling - Mutual inductance - Coefficient of coupling. Classifications and specifications of inductors - Classifications of inductors - Specifications of inductors. Stray capacitance and inductance - Stray lead capacitance - Stray lead inductance - RF and AF chokes. Inductors are in series - Inductors connected in series without mutual inductance - Inductors are in series with mutual inductance – Problem. Inductors are in parallel - Inductors connected in parallel without mutual inductance - Inductors connected in parallel with mutual inductance. Types of core materials used in different frequencies – Core material – Silicon iron alloys – Nickel iron alloys – Cobalt iron alloys – Powdered iron alloys – Ferrite cores – Comparison of various inductors.
Electrical properties of materials - Specific resistance – Problems - Types of materials - Electrical properties of materials. Energy level diagram - Energy bands in solids - Hole and its movements - Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators. Classification of Semiconductors - Types of Semiconductors - Bipolar nature of semiconductor - Comparison of Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors. Fermi level in semiconductor - Fermi level in an intrinsic semiconductor - Fermi level in extrinsic semiconductors. Formation of N-type and P-type semiconductor - Doped semiconductors - N-type semiconductor - Formation and conduction in n- type semiconductor - P – type semiconductor - Formation and conduction in p - type semiconductor - Comparison of P-type and N-type semiconductor. Majority and Minority Carriers - Majority and minority carriers - Conduction in semiconductors. Conductivity of semiconductor - Conductivity of semiconductor - Conductivity of intrinsic semiconductor - Conductivity of extrinsic semiconductor. Mobility – Mobility – Fermi Dirac distribution function. Current Density - Current Density - Density of states - Hall Effect. PN junction diode - Introduction to PN junction - Formation of PN junction - Formation of depletion region - Barrier potential - Band Structure of PN Junction. Operation of P-N Junction diode – Biasing of PN junction diode - Forward biasing of PN junction diode - Reverse biasing of PN junction diode – Breakdown in reverse bias – Comparison of breakdown mechanism - V-I characteristics of diode. Diode equation - Diode equation. Temperature effects - Temperature effects - Reverse saturation current - Cut-In voltage. Diode resistance - Diode resistance – Diode resistance - Forward resistance - Reverse resistance. Diode equivalent circuit - Diode equivalent circuit - Piecewise-Linear equivalent circuit - Simplified equivalent circuit - Ideal equivalent circuit. Diode capacitances - Diode capacitances - Transition capacitance - Diffusion capacitance. Diode switching times - Diode switching characteristics - Analysis of diode circuits - Diode models - Diode parameters. Specifications and applications of diodes - Diode – Variants - Diode numbering - Specifications of diodes – Applications of PN junction diodes. Solved problems for semiconductor - Problem to calculate reverse and forward resistance - Problem to calculate DC and dynamic forward resistance - Problem to calculate diode current - Problem to calculate forward diode current - Problem to calculate forward voltage drop.
Transistors - Introduction of transistor - Formation of transistor - Types of transistor - PNP transistor - NPN transistor - Transistor as an amplifier in CB configuration - Transistor configurations - Operation region of a transistor. Early effect - Early Effect or Base-width Modulation. Transistor current components - Current components in transistor. Transistor as an amplifier and switch - Introduction of amplifier - Active devices used for amplification - Transistor as an amplifier – Introduction - CE configuration is most widely used in amplifier circuit - Regions of operation of a transistor - Salient points of C.E. amplifier - Transistor as a switch. Transistor configurations - Common base configuration - Common emitter configuration - Common collector configuration. Characteristics of a transistor - Input characteristics of a transistor in a CB configuration - Output characteristics of a transistor in CB configuration - Three regions in the output characteristics of CB-Configuration - Input characteristics of CE configuration - Output characteristics of CE configuration - Three regions in the output characteristics of CE-Configuration - Input and Output characteristics of CC configuration. Transistor's parameters and specifications - Alpha, Beta and Gamma factors - Current amplification factor - Specification of transistor - Different types of packages in transistor. Comparison of three configurations - Comparison of CE, CB, CC configurations. Hybrid-Pi Model - Hybrid-Pi Model - Example problem. Hybrid parameter – Introduction - Hybrid parameter - Equivalent circuit for h parameter - Analysis of transistor amplifier circuit using 'h' parameters. Ebers-Moll model - Ebers-Moll model. Gummel Poon model - Gummel Poon model. Multi emitter transistor - Multi emitter transistor. Solved problems for transistor - Problem to calculate collector current and emitter current - Problem to calculate Base Current - Problem to calculate Base Current - Problem to calculate Collector Current - Problem to calculate Collector Current - Problem to calculate collector emitter voltage - Problem to calculate common emitter gain - Problem to calculate Emitter Current.
Transistor load lines - Introduction to transistor load lines - DC load line - AC load line. Introduction to operating point and load lines - Introduction to operating point and load lines. Need for biasing - Operation region of a transistor - Introduction of need for biasing. Various biasing methods for BJT - Transistor biasing - Various biasing methods for BJT. Fixed bias using a PNP transistor - Fixed bias using a PNP transistor - Stability factor S - Stability factor S' - Stability factor S'' - Advantages and disadvantages of fixed bias circuit - Problem to find stability factor S - Problem to determine RC. Collector to base bias circuit - Collector to base bias circuit - Problems to determine IC and VCE - Design Examples - Modified collector to base bias circuit - Problems to determine operating point - Stability Factor S for collector to base bias circuit - Stability Factor S' - Stability Factor S'' - Problems to determine RB - Problems to determine operating point of the circuit. Voltage divider bias / Self bias circuit - Voltage divider bias / Self bias circuit - Simplified circuit of voltage divider bias - Problem to calculate VCE and IC - Problem to find the q – point - Stability factor for Voltage divider bias - Voltage divider (self ) Bias using PNP transistor - Design example. Emitter stabilized bias circuit - Emitter stabilized bias circuit - Circuit analysis - Problem to determine IB, IC, VCE, VC, VE and VBC - Stability improvement. Need for bias stabilization - Causes for instability of biasing - Need for bias stabilization. Stability factor – Stabilization - Stability factor - Stability factor for different types of biasing circuits - Method of stabilizing the q point to the extent possible. Bias compensation - Diode compensation - Thermistor compensation - Sensistor compensation. Thermal Runaway - Thermal Runaway - Thermal resistance - Operating point considerations. Thermal stability - The condition for thermal stability - Thermal stability - Problem based on thermal stability. Analysis of transistor amplifier circuit using 'h' parameters - Analysis of transistor amplifier circuit using 'h' parameters - Problem based on analysis of transistor amplifier. FET biasing – Introduction - JFET with fixed bias - JFET with self bias (RS Bypassed) - JFET with self bias (RS Unbypassed) - JFET with voltage divider circuit (RS bypassed) - JFET with voltage divider bias (Unbypassed RS). MOSFET biasing – Introduction - Operation of MOSFET - Biasing enhancement MOSFET - Biasing of depletion MOSFET.
Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) - Introduction to Field Effect Transistor - Terminal details of JFET - Classification of Field Effect Transistor (FET) - Introduction of Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) - Construction of N and P-channel JFET - Operation of JFET. Characteristics of JFET - JFET parameters - JFET characteristics - Advantages and disadvantages of JFET over BJT - Features and applications of FET - Difference between N-channel and P-channel JFET - Difference between FET and BJT. MOSFET - Introduction of MOSFET - MOSFET structure - Classification of MOSFET. EMOSFET - Construction of a N-channel enhancement MOSFET - Operation of enhancement MOSFET - Drain and transfer characteristics - Comparison of D-MOSFET and E-MOSFET - Comparison between N-Channel and P-Channel MOSFET. DMOSFET - Construction of depletion MOSFET - Operation of depletion MOSFET - Drain and transfer characteristics - Comparison between JFET and MOSFET. VMOSFET - Construction - Operation - Characteristics - Advantages of VMOSFET. MOSFET biasing – Introduction - Operation of MOSFET - Biasing enhancement MOSFET - Biasing of depletion MOSFET. Power MOSFET - Power MOSFET. Equivalent Circuit Model and its Parameters - Equivalent Circuit Model and its Parameters - Small Signal Parameters - Small Signal Equivalent Circuit - Example problem. FinFET – FinFET - Advantages and applications of FinFET. Dual-Gate MOSFET - Introduction to CMOS - Limitations of Planar Technology - Dual-Gate MOSFET - Advantages and Applications of Dual Gate MOSFET. Comparison between JFET and MOSFET - Comparison of JFET and MOSFET - Advantages of MOSFET over JFET - Application of MOSFET. Solved problems for JFET - Problem to calculate the drain current - Problem to calculate drain current and transconductance - Problem to calculate the drain current and voltage - Problem to calculate source resistance - Problem to calculate gate source voltage.