This course focus on explaining about transistor biasing and stablization, Small signal amplifiers, large signal amplifiers, multivibrators and special semiconductor devices
Transistor as an amplifier- Introduction of amplifier- Active devices used for amplification - Transistor as an amplifier - Graphical representation of CE amplifier -CE configuration is most widely used in amplifier circuit - Regions of operation of a transistor - Salient points of C.E. amplifier. Transistor load lines -Introduction to transistor load lines - DC load line- AC load line. Operating point and load line- Introduction to operating point and load line. Need of transistor biasing - Operation region of a transistor - Introduction of need for biasing- Introduction to faithful amplification- Problem. Fixed bias network – Fixed bias circuit - Design example for fixed bias circuit. Causes for instability of biasing - Causes for instability of biasing. Need for stabilization and stability factor - Need for bias stabilization. Collector to base bias circuit- Requirement of biasing circuits- Types of biasing circuits - Collector to base resistor bias - Collector to base bias derivations - Advantages and disadvantages of collector to base resistor bias. Voltage divider bias - Voltage divider bias (or) Self bias (or)Potential divider bias - Advantages of self bias. Thermal Stability- Thermal Stability - Thermal resistance - The Condition for thermal stability - Problem to calculate the value of thermal resistance. Bias Compensation - Bias Compensation -Need for Bias compensation - Types of bias compensation. Diode compensation - Diode compensation - Thermistor compensation - Sensistor compensation. Heat sinks- Necessity of heat sink - Heat sink - Different types of heat sinks.
Single stage CE amplifier and H-Parameter model–Practical transistor amplifier- The Hybrid equivalent model- H-Parameter analysis steps of transistor - Common-Emitter amplifier. Classification of amplifiers - Classification of amplifiers. Need for multistage amplifiers - Need for multistage amplifier- Multistage amplifier - Methods of coupling multistage amplifier. Gain, decibel gain, frequency response and bandwidth of an amplifier - Gain – Block diagram of two-stage CE cascaded amplifier – Use of dB.RC coupled amplifier - RC coupled amplifier. Frequency response of RC coupled amplifier- Frequency response of RC coupled amplifier - Advantages and disadvantages of RC coupled amplifier. Transformer coupled amplifier- Transformer coupled amplifier. Frequency response of transformer coupled amplifier - Frequency response of transformer coupled amplifier - Advantages and disadvantages of transformer coupled amplifier. Direct coupled amplifier- Direct coupled amplifier - Advantages and disadvantages of direct coupled amplifier- Comparison of different types of coupled amplifiers. Circuit of emitter follower- Emitter follower. Darlington pair- Darlington pair.Negative and positive feedback- Introduction of feedback - Positive and negative feedback- Advantages and disadvantages- Comparison of positive and negative feedback. Block diagram of negative feedback- Block diagram of feedback amplifier - Gain of negative feedback amplifier. Classification of negative feedback amplifiers. Classification of negative feedback amplifiers - Advantages of negative feedback amplifier. Different types of negative feedback amplifiers – Different types of negative feedback amplifies - Voltage series feedback amplifiers - Current series feedback amplifier - Current shunt feedback amplifier - Voltage shunt feedback amplifier - Comparison of different feedback amplifier. Effects of negative feedback- Expression for the gain of feedback amplifier- Effect of negative feedback on input impedance- Effect of negative feedback on output impedance - Effect of negative feedback on bandwidth of an amplifier.
Why voltage amplifier can not be used as power amplifier- Why voltage amplifier cannot be used as power amplifier - Differences between voltage and power amplifiers - Characteristics of voltage and power amplifier. Classification of power amplifier - Classification of power amplifiers – Class A power amplifier - Class B power amplifier - Class C power amplifier - Class AB power amplifier. Single ended class A power amplifier with resistive load- Class A power amplifier with resistive load. Single ended class-A amplifier with transformer load- Class A power amplifier with transformer load - JK flip flop using NAND gates - Race-around condition. Class B amplifier- Class B amplifier. Class B push-pull amplifier - Push-pull Class B amplifier- Advantages and disadvantage. Need of class AB push-pull amplifier- Need of class AB push-pull amplifier- Amplitude distortion - Crossover distortion.Complementary push-pull power amplifier and its working - Complementary push-pull power amplifier - Advantage and disadvantages. Applications of power amplifiers and different ICs used in power amplifiers - Applications of power amplifiers - Different ICs used in power amplifiers. Applications of Class C Amplifiers- Applications of Class C Amplifiers. Efficiencies of different types of amplifier - Efficiencies of different types of amplifier. Oscillator - Introduction to Oscillator - Types of oscillators -Basic theory of oscillator- Comparison between amplifier and oscillator - Barkhausen Criterion.Requisites and Classification of oscillators - Requisites of an oscillator - Classification of oscillators.Wein bridge oscillator - Wein bridge oscillator - Advantages and disadvantage of wein bridge oscillator – Problem.RC phase shift oscillator- RC phase shift oscillator - RC feedback network -Condition for sustained oscillations - Advantages and disadvantages of RC phase shift oscillator. Tuned Collector oscillator- Tuned collector oscillator - Advantages and disadvantages of tuned collector oscillator. Hartley oscillator- Hartley oscillator - Condition for sustained oscillations - Advantages and disadvantages of hartley oscillator. Colpitt’s oscillator- Colpitt’s oscillator - Condition for sustained oscillations - Advantages and disadvantages of colpitt's oscillator. Crystal oscillator - Crystal oscillator - Advantages and disadvantage of crystal oscillator. Merits and demerits of RC and LC oscillator- Merits and demerits of RC and LC oscillator.
Wave shaping circuit- Introduction of wave shaping circuit.RC integrator and differentiator circuit - RC integrator and differentiator circuit. Clipper - Classification of clipper- Introduction of positive clipper - Series positive clipper - Shunt positive clipper - Introduction of negative clipper - Series type negative clipper - Shunt type negative clipper. Biased clippers - Introduction of biased clipper - Parallel positive clipper with reference voltage - Parallel negative clipper with reference voltage - Double ended clipper. Clamper circuit - Introduction of clampers - Negative clamper - Operation of negative clamper - Operation of positive clamper. Applications of clippers and clampers- Applications of clippers and clampers.Classification of multivibrators - Introduction of multivibrator- Introduction of bistable multivibrator - Introduction of monostable multivibrator - Introduction of astablemultivibrators. Bistable multivibrator - Introduction of bistable multivibrator–Bistable multivibrator. Schmitt trigger–Schmitt trigger - Applications of schmitt trigger. Monostable multivibrator - Introduction of monostable multivibrator - Monostable multivibrator. Astable multivibrator - Introduction of astable multivibrator - Astable multivibrator.
Varactor diode- Varactor diode - Working principle of varactor diode - Doping profile in varactor diode - Applications of varactor diodes.Photo diode - Introduction of photo diode - Working and characteristics of photo diode - Advantages and disadvantages of photo diode - Applications of photo diode. Photo transistor- Introduction of photo transistor- Operation of photo transistor. Light Dependent Resistor- Introduction of Light Dependent Resistor(LDR) - Working and characteristics of LDR - Advantages and disadvantages of LDR - Applications of LDR. Photo voltaic cell - Introduction of photo voltaic cell(Solar cell) - Working and characteristics of photo voltaic cell - Advantages and applications of solar cells. Light Emitting Diode (LED) -Introduction of Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Construction of LED - Basic operation of LED - Advantages and disadvantages of LED - Applications of LED. Liquid Crystal Display- Introduction to LCD -LCD crystal types - LCD operation - Applications of LCD - Advantages and disadvantages of LCD. Application of various devices-Applications of photo diode - Applications of photo transistor – Applications of photo voltaic cell. Voltage regulator– Introduction of voltage regulation - Zener regulator - Simple zener voltage regulator - Advantages and disadvantages of zener voltage regulator.Series and shunt voltage regulator- Types of voltage regulators - Purpose of series voltage regulator - Series voltage regulator - Advantages and disadvantages of series voltage regulator - Shunt voltage regulator. JFET as current source- JFET as current source