This learning solution covers all the materials required for construction. Building materials like stones, Bricks, Clay products, Sand, Mortars, Concrete, Surface productive materials, Timber, Plastics, Glass and asbestos are explained. Detailed explanation includes the classification, characteristic, types, Properties, Uses, tests, manufacture of building materials.
Stones - Stone and its classification, Quarrying of stones, Dressing of stones, Characteristics of good building stones, Some common building stones in India, Uses of building stones and their selection. Tests on stones - Deterioration of stone work, Preservation of stone work, Tests on stones, Hardness test, Smith test, Water absorption test, Specifications of building stones. Bricks - Introduction to brick, Composition of brick earth, Functions of ingredients of brick earth, Harmful ingredients in brick earth, Field testing of brick earth, Manufacturing of bricks, Preparation of brick earth, Moulding of bricks, Drying of bricks, Burning of bricks, Classification of bricks, Characteristics of good bricks. Tests on bricks - Sampling for testing of bricks, Water absorption test, Compressive strength test, Efflorescence test, Shape and structure test, Hardness and soundness test, Specifications of bricks. Special bricks - Specially shaped bricks, Burnt clay facing bricks, Heavy duty bricks, Perforated bricks, Burnt clay hollow bricks, Sand lime bricks, Sewer bricks, Acid resistant bricks, Refractory bricks, Manufacturing of refractory bricks, Applications of refractory bricks. Cement concrete blocks - Manufacturing of concrete blocks, Terminology, Solid concrete block, Hollow concrete block, Dimensions and tolerance, Physical requirements, Advantages and disadvantages of concrete block.
Lime - Introduction to lime, Constituents of limestone, Important technical terms, Manufacturing of lime, Types of lime based on IS specification, Classification of lime, Properties of lime, Uses of lime, Testing of lime. Cement - Introduction to cement, Manufacturing of portland cement, Chemical composition, Functions of cement ingredients, Composition of cement clinker, Types of cement and grades of cement, Types of cement and grades of cement, Hydration of cement and its importance, Heat of hydration. Testing of cement - Field testing, Laboratory testing, Fineness test, Consistency test, Setting time test, Soundness test by Le-Chatelier method, Soundness test by autoclave method, Compression strength of cement, Tensile strength of cement. Mortar - Introduction to mortar, Properties and uses of mortar, Types of mortar, Cement mortar, Preparation of cement mortar, Lime mortar, Preparation of lime mortar, Lime cement mortar, Special mortars. Industrial byproduct - Introduction, Fly ash, Chemical composition of fly ash, Uses of fly ash, Other industrial byproducts, Agricultural byproducts. Introduction to Coarse aggregates, Introduction to coarse aggregates, Grading of coarse aggregates, Specific gravity and water absorption of coarse aggregates, Flakiness index for coarse aggregate, Elongation index for coarse aggregate, Crushing test of coarse aggregate, Impact test of coarse aggregate, Abrasion test of coarse aggregate, Deval and Dorry abrasion test. Introduction to fine aggregates, Grading of fine aggregates, Specific gravity and water absorption test of fine aggregates, Surface moisture in fine aggregate, Bulking of fine aggregates, Deleterious materials in fine aggregate, Determination of clay, fine silt and fine dust, Determination of organic impurities.
Manufacturing of concrete - Introduction to concrete, Ingredients of concrete, Manufacturing of concrete, Batching, Mixing, Transporting, Placing of concrete, Compaction, Finishing, Curing. Properties and testing of fresh concrete - Properties of fresh concrete, Measurement of workability, K slump test, Compaction factor test, Flow test, Key ball test, Vee bee consistometer test, Test for bleeding of concrete. Properties and testing of hardened concrete - Properties of hardened concrete, Durability of concrete, Testing of hardened concrete, Tensile strength or flexural strength of concrete, Split tensile strength of concrete. Mix design - Concept of mix design, Types of mix, Factors affecting the choice of mix proportions, Variables in proportioning, Various of methods of proportioning, Mix design as per IS 10262:1982, Selection of mix proportions, Trial mixes. Special concretes - High strength concrete, High performance concrete, Self Compacting Concrete, Ready mix concrete.
Timber - Introduction to timber, Properties and characteristics of timber, Seasoning of timber, Methods of seasoning of timber, Market forms of timber, Defects in timber, Preservation of timber, Methods of preservation, Types of preservative treatment. Timber products - Wood products, Veneer, Plywood, Laminated board, Fiber board, Batten and block board. Steel - Introduction to steel, Properties and uses of steel, Market forms of steel, Structural steel sections, Grades of steel used as reinforcement. Aluminium - Introduction to aluminium, Properties of aluminium, Uses of aluminium, Thermocole. Paints and painting, Characteristics of ideal paint, Constituents of paints, Classification of paint, Painting on plastered wall, Painting on wood work, Painting on metal surface. Varnishes - Composition of varnishes, Characteristics of good varnish, Types of varnishes, Process of varnishing. Distemper - Market forms of distemper, Types of distemper, Properties of distemper, Application of distemper. Bitumen - Properties of bitumen, Uses of bitumen, Forms of bitumen.
Glass - Introduction to glass, Constituents of glass and their function, Manufacturing of glass, Classification of glass, Commercial forms of steel, Fibre reinforced plastic, Uses of glass. Ceramics - Introduction to ceramic, Classification of ceramic materials, Application of ceramics. Sealants for joints - Introduction to sealant, Types of sealant, Market forms of sealant, Typical uses of sealants. Clay products - Introduction to clay products, Tiles, Manufacturing of tiles, Classification of tiles, Roof tiles, Floor tiles, Other type of tiles, Earthen ware, Stoneware, Terra cotta, Porcelain. Refractories - Introduction to refractories, Acid refractories, Basic refractories, Neutral refractories, Refractory fibres. Composite materials - Introduction to composite material, Classification of composite material, Particle reinforced composites, Fibre reinforced composite, Structural composites. Geosynthetics - Introduction to geosynthentics, Classification of geosynthetics, Functions and uses of geosynthetics.
Paints - Paints - Composition of paint - Functions and characteristics of paints. Enamels and Varnishes - Enamels and Varnishes - Composition of enamels - Composition of varnishes. Types of paint - Types of paint - Types and uses of paint. Special paints - Special paints - Types and uses of special paints. Types of varnishes and enamels - Types of varnishes and enamels - Types and uses of enamel paints - Types and uses of varnishes. Types and uses of distemper, emulsions, french polish and wax polish - Types and uses of distemper, emulsions, french polish and wax polish - Types and uses of distemper - Types and uses of emulsion, french polish and wax polish.
Characteristics of timber - Characteristics of timber - Characteristics of timber – Seasoning - Common varieties of timber used in andhra Pradesh - Picture of trees. Wood products - Wood products - Wood products I - Varieties of wood products II. Plastics - Plastics - Types of plastics - Uses of plastics - Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP). Asbestos - Asbestos - Uses of asbestos - Specification of asbestos products - Uses of asbestos in the manufacture of bricks. Types of glasses - Types of glasses - Types of glasses and uses. Powder coating - Powder coating - Advantages of powder coating - Powder coated aluminium or steel. Gypsum - Gypsum - Gypsum and uses - Plaster of paris or stucco - Gypsum wall plasters and plaster boards - Non load bearing gypsum partition blocks and polycell. Geosynthetics - Geosynthetics - Types of geosynthetics - Applications of geosynthetics - Secondary uses of geosynthetic.