Beginning with the basic principles of electricity, this learning solution provides an exhaustive coverage of heating and magnetic effects of electrical current, Electrostatics and ends with a brief introduction to Batteries.
Introduction to basic principles of electricity - Evolution in human comforts - Atom and Atomic structure - Matter. Classifications of materials- Valence electron - Comparison between Conductor, Insulator and Semi-Conductor. Basic definitions- Charge - Voltage and current. Electric circuit and Ohm's law - Electric networks and circuits - Ohm's law - How to remember Ohm's law - Problems on Ohm's law. Resistance- Laws of resistance. Specific resistance - Problems- Effect of alloying on resistivity. Effects of temperature on resistance - Temperature co-efficient of resistance - Variation of temperature coefficient of resistance – Problems on temperature effects on resistivity. Resistance in series - Connection of series resistance – Problem. Resistance in Parallel - Connection of parallel resistance - Problems on parallel resistance - Resistances in series and parallel combination - Problems on series-parallel combination- Current division in parallel circuits.
Work- Force -SI unit - Problem. Power, Energy- Electrical power - Electrical energy – Problems
Heating Effects of Electrical current - Causes of heating effects of electric current. Applications of heating effects of electric current - Incandescent lamp - Electric kettle - Electric cooker - Space heaters or room heaters - Electric iron - Infrared Lamp – Geysers. Thermal efficiency - Problems on thermal efficiency.
Develop the idea of lines of force and magnetic field - Introduction to magnet -Types of Magnets- Magnetic field. Field pattern of long current carrying conductor - Magnetic field around a current carrying conductor - Magnetic field due to straight conductor. Field patterns of solenoid and toroid - Field pattern of a solenoid - Field pattern of a toroid. Laplace's law or Biot-Savart’s law - Work law - Field strength due to straight current carrying conductor - Field strength on the axis of a solenoid - Laplace's law or Biot-Savart's law - Field strength around a long straight conductor - Field strength at any point on the axis of a circular conductor or coil. Mechanical force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field - Mechanical force on a current carrying conductor inside a magnetic field (Forward current) - Force between two parallel current carrying conductors - Nature of the force with different directions of the currents - Problems on magnetic field strength and force. Definitions - Magnetizing force, magnetic flux, permeability, reluctance. Develop the concept of Magnetic Circuit - Magnetic circuits - Series magnetic circuits - Parallel magnetic circuit with air gap - Magnetic leakage and fringing - Problems on simple Magnetic Circuits - Compare magnetic circuit and electric circuit.
Introduction to electromagnetic induction - Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction – Induced EMF - Dynamically and statically induced e.m.f - Problems on induced e.m.f.Lenz's law, Fleming’s right hand rule - Direction of induced e.m.f. and current. Concept of self and mutual inductance -Self-inductance - Mutual inductance. Expressions for self and mutual inductances - Coefficient of self-induction (L) - Coefficient of mutual inductance (M) - Problems on self and mutual inductances. Co-efficient of coupling - Problems on Co-efficient of coupling. Inductances in series and parallel - Inductances in series- Series and parallel aiding inductance – Problems. Energy stored per unit volume - Inductance parameter - Energy stored in a magnetic field - Problems on energy stored in inductance. Lifting power of a magnet- Problems on lifting power of a magnet.
Coulomb's laws of electrostatics - Static electricity - Laws of electrostatics. Absolute and relative permittivity– Permittivity - Problems on coulomb's law. Electrostatic fields - Electric field - Plotting of electrostatic fields - Isolated positive charge - Like charges side by side - Electrostatic induction. Comparison of electrostatic and magnetic fields - Electric flux - Comparison between electric lines of force and magnetic lines of force. Electric field intensity and gauss theorem - Field strength (or) Field intensity - Gauss theorem. Electrical potential, potential difference - Electric potential - Dielectric strength and importance of dielectric constant.Capacitance – Introduction - Capacitor charging and discharging. Capacitance equation - Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor - Composite dielectric capacitors - Types of capacitors and uses of capacitor. Capacitors in series and parallel - Capacitors in series - Capacitor in parallel - Capacitors in series-parallel. Energy stored in a capacitor - Problems on energy stored in a capacitor.
Primary and Secondary Cells - Cell terminology - Classification of Cells - Comparison between primary and secondary cell. Chemical reaction of secondary cell - Chemical reactions of lead acid battery -Chemical reactions of lead acid cell during charging - Chemical reaction of nickel iron cell - Charging and discharging reaction nickel cadmium cell. Lead Acid battery - Construction of lead acid battery - Containers of a lead acid cell - Plates of a lead acid cell – Separators - Vent plugs or filler caps. Effect of temperature on specific gravity of electrolyte - Variation in specific gravity during charging and discharging - Effect of specific gravity on e.m.f. Nickel iron Cell - Construction of nickel iron cells. Application of storage cells -Nickel-cadmium battery - Charging and discharging reaction - Applications of lead-acid battery - Applications of a nickel iron battery - Advantages of nickel cadmium cell over other batteries - Applications of a nickel cadmium cell. Charging methods of batteries - Precautionary measures to be taken during charging and discharging of batteries - Trickle charging. Indications of a fully charged battery - Capacity of a battery - Factors affecting capacity of a Battery. Efficiency of a battery - Watt-hour efficiency (or) energy efficiency – Problems. Construction of maintenance free battery - Introduction to maintenance free battery - Action of maintenance free batteries - Comparison between maintenance free battery and lead acid battery - Applications of maintenance free batteries. Applications of battery - Miniature button Cell - Mercury Cell - Construction of silver oxide cell - Specifications and Ratings of miniature button cells - Important applications of miniature button cells.